aBio Ch.54 Development

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
143329
Filename:
aBio Ch.54 Development
Updated:
2012-04-20 20:04:00
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bio
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Description:
Test number 4 ch 54
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  1. Development of Multicellular Organisms
    • Depends on kingdom
    • Kingdom fungi - development simple
    • Kingdom virdidi plantae - some complexity/flexibilty
    • Kingdom animalia - development complex
  2. Models of development:
    • 1) mouse
    • 2) fruit fly
    • 3) Arabidopsis (plant)
    • 4) A nematode (round worm)
  3. Mouse model:
    • Mouse: Mus (genus) musculus (species) (underlined or italizized
    • Vertebrate, mammal
    • eg: up to 8 cell stage any cell could form an adult "totipotent"
  4. Totipotent:
    any cell can form an adult
  5. Fruit fly - drosophilia
    • short generation time, easy to grow
    • a) "meta morphosis" = egg-->larva-->pupa-->adult
    • b) "synclical blastoderm" =mitosis 1st, cytokenisis 2nd
    • c) form segments
    • d) homeotic genes - give each segment their identity (homeotic mutants)
  6. Arabidopsis -
    • (Plant)
    • short generation time / easy to grow
    • fertilized egg->
    • mitosis->
    • ball of cells->
    • 3 tissue layter->
    • root to be and cytokenisis (1st leaves)->
    • into seed->
    • germination->
    • grow
  7. Important for plant development:
    • Hormones
    • Merisystems- actively growing (miotic)
    • *Plants grow from tips
  8. A nematode:
    • (round worm)
    • C Elegans (1 mm long)
    • "apoptosis" - cell suicide
  9. Vertebrae development:
    • 1) Fertilization
    • 2) Cleavage
    • 3) Gastrulation - 2nd week
    • 4) Neurolation - 3rd week
    • 5) Organogenesis and growth - 4th week
  10. Vertebrae fertilization:
    • Fertilization- 1N egg + 1N sperm = 2N zygote
    • a) sperm gets thru egg membrane - "penetration"
    • b) activation - protein synthesis goes up
    • - cytoplasmic movement
    • - change in egg membrane
    • c) Nuclei fusion
  11. Metmophisis
    change in form - tadpole to frog
  12. Synclical blastoderm:
    single large cytoplasm - 4,000 nuclei
  13. Homeotic genes/mutants
    determine form of segments
  14. Vertebrae cleavage
    • Cleavage - cell division
    • 1-->2-->4-------->32 cells MORULA
    • Morula: ball of cells
    • Mitosis continues...
    • Blastula - 500-2000 cells
    • Blastula is hollow - form vaires
    • eg: mammalian blastula
    • ICM - inner cell mass (embryotic stem cells)
  15. Morula
    ball of cells (32 cells)
  16. Blastula:
    • 500-2000 Cells
    • Hollow
    • form varies
    • eg: mammalian blastula
  17. ICM
    Inner Cell Mass (embryotic stem cells)
  18. Gastrulation (vertebrae dev)
    • Lots of cell movement
    • Tissue types are formed

    • Primary germ layers: (2nd week after fertilization)
    • Endoderm - inner
    • Mesoderm - middle
    • Ectoderm - outer
  19. Neurolation in vertebrae dev:
    • 3rd week after fertilization
    • First signs of nervous system
    • First step in organogenesis (organs)
  20. Organogenesis in vertebrae dev:
    • 4th week after fertilization
    • Morphogenesis - appearance and form
    • a) cell division
    • b) cell growth
    • c) cell movement
    • d) cells die (apoptosis)
  21. Mechanisms:
    • 1) induction
    • 2) Cell movement
    • 3) Determination and differentiation
  22. Induction:
    • a cell switches its development path because of an interaction/signal with another cell
    • Cell #1 -------signal------ cell #2

    Organizer cells --> morphagen ----> recipient cells
  23. Cell movement
    Disattach, migrate, re-attach
  24. Determination and differentiation:
    • Determination: fate of cells become determined
    • Differentiation: Cell actually becomes different
  25. Pluripotent:
    cell has potential to differentiate into 3 germ layers
  26. acrosome:
    over the anterior half of sperm cell

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