aBio Ch 18 Genomics

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tjtolman
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143330
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aBio Ch 18 Genomics
Updated:
2012-04-21 11:45:21
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bio
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Chapter 18 test 4 Genomics
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  1. Genomics
    • Study of genomes
    • Genome - entire DNA sequence of an organism
  2. Maps of DNA:
    • 1) Physical maps - DNA seq.
    • 2) Genetic maps - location on chromosome
  3. Physical map of DNA:
    • 1) map of the dna sequence
    • 2) chromosome banding patterns
    • 3) mapping the "restriction sites"
  4. Genetic Maps:
    map gene location onto chromosome - provides link to phenotypes
  5. Human genome project:
    • 1990 ---2001-02 mostly done (still gaps)
    • 100's of researchers involved to map human genes
    • (found fewer genes than expected)
  6. DNA that codes for protein:
    • single copy genes
    • segmental duplications -groups
    • multigene families -collection
    • tandem clusters -rRNA
  7. Eukarytotic genomes-
    • About 1-1.5% DNA codes for protein
    • DNA that does code for protein
    • a) single copy genes
    • -in human genome (25,000 genes)
    • -80,000 mRNA's
    • "alternative splicing" 1 DNA --> 2 Diff ways

    b) segmental duplications - gene groups found on more than 1 chromosome

    c) Multigene families: collection of similar genes

    • d) Tandem cluster: cluster of genes (identical genes)
    • eg: rRNA genes
  8. DNA that does not code for protein:
    • a) Introns -24%
    • b) structural -20%
    • c) simple sequence repeats -30%
    • d) segmental duplications
    • e) psuedogenes
    • f) Transposable elements -43%
    • g) micro RNA genes
  9. Introns:
    • "Snipped out" non-coding sections of DNA in genes
    • 24% of Human DNA
  10. Structural DNA
    • 20% of Human genome
    • structural function (near centomeres)
  11. Simple sequence repeats
    • 1-6 nucleotides, repeat themselves
    • Hungtingtons disease -
    • 3% of DNA
  12. Segmental duplications
    segments are duplicated - blocks of genes copied from 1 chrom. to another.
  13. Pseudogenes
    inactive genes
  14. Transposable elements
    • transposons (mobile genetic elements) - bits of dna move from 1 loc. on chrom to another.
    • jumpinge genes
    • (move)
    • Euk and Prok
    • Barbara Mcclintock 1940's-1950's nobel prize 1983
    • 43% of dna
  15. Barbara McClintock
    • Aransposable elements
    • 1940's-1950's
    • Nobel prize in 1983
  16. Micro rna genes
    • Control of Mrna's
    • Haplotypes - region of chrom. not exchanged
  17. SNP's
    • -Single nucleotide polymorphisms
    • polymorphism = variation
    • Places in DNA where there is single nucleotide variabilty
    • 1.5 million have been found- 50,000 in coding
    • The rest in non-coding DNA
  18. Linkeage disequilibrium:
    genes not to be random
  19. Comparative genomics
    • compares genes
    • a) human vs drosophila
    • 50% of drosophilia genes have a human counterpart
    • b) human vs chimps
    • differ in 1.3 % nucleotides
    • c) Human vs mice
    • Both have about 25,000 genes
    • about 99% "shared" genes (not identical/some similarities)
  20. Syntheny
    Degree of similarity in DNA
  21. Proteomics
    Study of proteins produced by genomes
  22. Functional genomics
    study of funtion
  23. Bio informatics:
    • use of computer to store and use (genome info) information.
    • Large mass of bio info stored in computer to analyze.

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