EMB S3 NOTES

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EMB S3 NOTES
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  1. After death, the body and its immediate environment are _________________.

    Generally, germs do _______ die with the host.
    unsanitary

    not
  2. Hierarchy of hygiene control
    sterilize

    disinfect

    antiseptic

    sanitize
  3. Aseptic
    free from infection and from any form of life
  4. Sterilization
    this renders a substance free of all microbes (vegetative and spore bacterial forms) including viral

    it is the most effective method of hygiene control

    heat is the top of the list as this but not suitable to apply to a case prior to viewing (including cremation)

    there is also a cold method of this
  5. Disinfect
    to destroy disease causing mibrobes (vegetative form of bacteria, but not spores)

    i.e. washing with germicidal soap, injecting embalming chemicals
  6. Antiseptic
    to inhibit the growth of microbes

    to interfere with microbal reproduction but does not kill

    i.e. flush with a topical antiseptic
  7. Sanitize
    to reduce the number of microbes, some are still present

    this is the lest effective method of hygiene control

    i.e. washing with running water and common soap
  8. Sanitizer
    a chemical agent with disinfecting properties when applied to a precleaned object
  9. Primary disinfection
    the disinfecting and decontamination measures taken prior to embalming (arterial injection)
  10. Concurrent disinfection
    the disinfecting and decontamination measures taken during emblaming (arterial injection)
  11. Terminal disinfection
    the disinfecting and decontamination measures used after embalming (arterial injection and cavity treatment)
  12. List the three types of disinfection
    primary

    concurrent

    terminal
  13. Instruments and equipment

    Do not share instruments from one case to another without ______________ them beforehand

    Doing this kills bacterial __________ to prevent the spread of tissue _______
    sterilizing

    spores, gas
  14. Prep room

    Use the __________ level of control you can employ

    You will _____ be able to sterilize the entire prep room
    highest

    not
  15. Embalmer

    Destroy/dispose of gloves ________ each use

    Keep finger nails ________ to avoid tears in the gloves

    Thoroughly wash your hands ________ removing the gloves and check your skin for _______
    after

    short

    after, cuts
  16. If you have a cut in your skin...

    _____________ the area immediately

    _____________ bleeding

    ____________ a physician
    disinfect

    induce

    consult
  17. Purpose of environmental hygiene

    Protect the ___________ health

    Protect the __________________ (your health)

    Create a clean, sanitary _______________

    Protect the ______________
    public

    operator/embalmer

    body

    environment
  18. Why should we create a clean, sanitary body as a purpose of environmental hygiene?
    so the public can safely view the remains without the worry of contracting an infection or disease
  19. How is hazardous waste disposed of after it is collected from the place of use?
    it is incinerated
  20. Why must biohazardous waste not go into regular common trash?
    because it will go out to a public dumpster/landfill

    biohazardous material should be incinerated
  21. List the embalming procedures we should follow to ensure proper hygiene and create a clean, sanitary body
    disinfection of all external orifices/body openings

    bathe the body

    use embalming chemicals to disinfect internally
  22. Disinfection of all external orificies of the body is done with a ______________ disinfectanct spray

    Cotton is then saturated with a disinfecting chemical to clean out __________ and nasal cavities
    topical

    oral
  23. Body openings to worry about during primary disinfection which should be cleaned as thoroughly as possible are
    ears

    nose

    mouth

    anus

    groin area
  24. Remove all materials from the mouth and throat (oral cavity) with clean cotton or if necessary, use a __________ __________ aspirator
    nasal tube
  25. The body is bathed with ____________ water and _______________ soap
    running, germicidal
  26. For safety purposes, when bathing the body in lab we must work as a _________
    team
  27. Use a ________________ prepared germicidal _________ intended for disinfecting ____________
    commercially, soap, remains
  28. Vascular fluids are designed to be ___________ with _________ in embalming machine tank

    The embalmer mathematically computes the percent of ____________ being injected
    diluted, water

    formaldehyde (HCHO)
  29. What is the range of solution strength for an average case?

    - 1.0% - 2.5 %

    - 3.0% - 4.0%

    - 5.0% - 8.0%
    1.0% - 2.5%
  30. What is the range of solution strength for a difficult case?

    - 1.0% - 2.5 %

    - 3.0% - 4.0%

    - 5.0% - 8.0%
    3.0% - 4.0%
  31. What is the range of solution strength for an advanced decomposition, high level case of edema case?

    - 1.0% - 2.5 %

    - 3.0% - 4.0%

    - 5.0% - 8.0%
    5.0% - 8.0%
  32. Cavity fluids are used _____________ from the bottle. They are _________ diluted.
    straight, not
  33. Body should be placed on a table with the head ____________ above the rest of the body with the use of a __________ block
    elevated, head
  34. Generally, be sure the body is straight and in the _________ position on the table

    Exception: _______________ cases. You do ______ cut or break tissues to straighten
    straight

    arthritic, not
  35. The head and ________ should be placed on the headrest in such a way that it will not interfere with distribution of _______ or drainage
    neck, fluid
  36. The face may be tilted to the _________, about ________ degrees

    This is the generally preferred "__________" viewing position
    right, 15

    casketed
  37. Hands should be placed in a desirable position

    Fingers together and slightly ________, hands folded across the _______________ or placed at sides until distribution is observed
    cupped, abdomen
  38. When positioning the hands on the body, which hand should be placed on top?
    the left hand
  39. Arms may need to be ____________ or otherwise posed for effective positioning or hands

    Use _______ blocks to prevent elbows from interfering with the ____________ along the sides of the table
    elevated

    arm, drainage
  40. Shoulders may need to be _________ to effect proper neck alignment, use body boards or __________ to help
    elevated, bridges
  41. The use of additional empermeable posing devices may be _____________ in special situations for proper body positioning

    This will vary with the specific case
    necessary
  42. What is needed in order to remove facial hair?

    From who?
    permission

    family/from the person who has authorization through Health and Safety Code Section 7100
  43. What are the two recommendations we should do/use in order to achieve thorough diffusion (perfusion) to all tissues?
    multi-site injection

    adequate quantity of chemical
  44. ______ or more injection sites ensure ensure a more consistent _____________ of the disinfection and preservation chemical solutions (deep and superficial)

    i.e. inject down the right common carotid artery while temporarily tying off the up side

    then inject down starting at the left femoral artery, if needed

    then inject either brachial artery, if needed
    two, distribution
  45. Adequate quantity of chemical...estimate _____ gallon of embalming solution for each _____ pounds of body weight

    this is just an estimate
    1, 50
  46. During injection, allow any discharge to drain _________

    When is closure of all external orifices performed?
    freely

    after injection

    doing this in this particular order eliminates both pressure and discharged material from remains prior to suturing
  47. Packing: the use of cotton helps prevent _______ or purge
    odor
  48. What is best to use when there is need to close the anal/vaginal openings?

    Suture: as needed.

    i.e. incisions, punctures, anal/vaginal openings

    in extreme cases suturing lips closed
    an AV plug
  49. Use adhesives as needed

    i.e. liquid cement for the line of closure on the ___________
    mouth
  50. Remove and record _______ clothing and personal effects

    Examine for valuables

    Do _____ destroy any personal items unless the family (NOK) instructs you to do so
    all

    not
  51. __________ soiled clothing and return to the family

    OR

    __________ after proper authorization
    launder

    destroy
  52. Where do we dispose of sharps?
    in the red sharps container
  53. When are items used during the embalming procedure considered contaminated?

    Where are these items disposed of?
    after contact with the dead human body

    in the red bio-hazardous waste container
  54. Use __________ amount (lots of) running water at ______ times while embalming.

    Where do blood, body fluids and the running water we use during embalming flush into?
    copious, all

    into the regular sewer
  55. Are bandages and cotton considered contaminated items?
    yes, they should be disposed as bio-hazardous waste
  56. Adhere to strict compliance to all ________, state, and ________ regulations
    local, federal
  57. When did the bloodborne pathogen standard (OSHA 20 CFR 1910.1030) become effective?

    Who does it protect?

    What type of occupations does it apply to?
    December 6, 1991

    Health care workers

    it applies to occupations where there is exposure to blood, blood by-products, body fluids that might contain traces of blood, and other potentially infections materials
  58. What does OPIM stand for?
    other potentially infectious materials
  59. Who is responsible for identifying the tasks and procedures in which occupational exposure may occur?

    - employer

    - employee
    employer
  60. List the type of immunization the employer must make available

    What is required if the employee does not with to be immunized?

    If the employee changes their mind, does the immunization still need to be provided by the employer?
    HBV (hepatitis B virus)

    written declination

    yes, it must be
  61. In the event of a needle stick or other accidental exposure by the employee what must be made available by the employer?
    post-exposure evaluation and follow-up
  62. The employer must list job descriptions that may be reasonably expected to involve skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral (needle stick) contact with blood. This is known as communication of ______________
    hazards
  63. Employee's medical records are to be retained for the duration of employment plus ____ years

    Employee's training records are to be retained for _____ years from the date of training
    30

    3
  64. Tasks and procedures with potential exposure for each employee include all of the following:

    ____________ of bodies from the place of death

    ______________ bodies (think prep room)

    ____________ and casketing

    Preparing ____________unembalmed bodies for disposition (think Jewish)

    Housekeeping
    removal

    embalming

    dressing

    unembalmed
  65. Exposure determination should be made with regard to universal precaution and not to use of PPE's

    So, universal precaution says...

    We are to ________ all human blood and body fluids as if known to be ___________ for HIV, HBV and other blood borne pathogens
    treat, infectious

    HIV: human immunodeficiency virus

    HBV: hepatitis B virus
  66. Epidemiology
    The branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases
  67. Epidemiology explanation

    modes of ______________

    symptoms of diseases that embalmers can contract (i.e. HIV, HBV and OPIM)

    Reference any disease transmitted by air, droplet, and direct contact
    transmission
  68. All procedures involving blood and OPIM performed in such manner as to minimize

    splashing

    spraying

    spattering

    aerosolization (air borne)

    Gather instruments and supplies ________ to working with contaminated gloves
    prior
  69. PPE is an acronym for:
    personal protective equipment
  70. The purpose of wearing personal protective equipment is to form a _________ and protect the handler of dead human remains and ________________ articles
    barrier, contaminated
  71. Formaldehyde rule:

    employees to solutions of ______ (0.01 ppm) formaldehyde or greater are required to wear __________ and a face shield for protection of the eyes and skin
    1%, goggles
  72. For protection from entry of virus through mucous membranes of eyes, nose and lips, the embalmer is to wear mask, goggles or ___________ with the side shields or chin-length face ________
    glasses, shield
  73. Proper use of PPEs assures safeguard of your __________ thereby protecting the _________ health
    health, public
  74. PPEs are ____________ equipment so maintenance is not required
    disposable
  75. Closed drainage procedure during arterial injection
    system of drainage tube or hose to take drainage directly to disposition receptacle

    or

    drainage from the right atrium (through the chest wall) with drainage aspirated from the thoracic cavity with the use of a trocar
  76. Using the ____________ drainage system promotes minimal or no blood to flow over the body or table
    closed
  77. Laying a transparent, flexible or solid plastic material/shield between the embalmer and any open drainage site prevents splatter and ________________ (think air)
    aerosolization
  78. Avoid ________ water pressure when water is used during embalming or clean up to flush blood from the embalming table

    Also, avoid splatter and _____________ (think air)
    high

    aerosolization
  79. In order to avoid _____________ (term) entry (needle sticks or cuts) be conscious of where scalpels and other ___________ instruments are laid during embalming
    parenteral, sharp
  80. What is the purpose of covering broken or cut bones prior to the placement of an embalmer's hands or arms into the body cavity or any mutilated portion of the body
    to prevent parenteral (needle sticks, cuts) entry
  81. Do not place gloved hand to your mask or eye cover

    Rinse gloved hands as needed during the embalming procedure
    check for torn or sagging "water logged" gloves and replace immediately!!

    Gloves wil "wick" water and pathogens through the pores

    Avoid contamination of the environment
  82. All contaminated items are to be cleaned and __________ at the conclusion of the embalming procedure or at the end of every ____________
    sanitized, shift
  83. The act of eating, drinking, smoking, applying personal cosmetics, lip balm or handling contact lenses is known as
    farding
  84. Is it allowed to eat, drink, smoke, apply personal cosmetics, lip balm or handling contact lenses in work areas?
    eww, no!!
  85. Follow housekeeping procedures and keep a written schedule.

    Clean prep room at the completion of embalming or at the _____ of each work shift

    Focus on cleaning and decontamination
    Follow regulated waste handling and disposal

    Waste products to be placed in sealed leak proof container or bag that is color coded or labeled
  86. Use proper procedures for contaminated laundry handling, containment, and decontamination

    be knowledgeable of Hepatitis B immunization which is required to be made available by employer

    develop emergency procedures
    report all accidents

    perform post-exposure evaluation with a physician

    use appropriate labels and signs for hazardous items
  87. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Public Health Guidelines

    perform a thorough cleansing of body surface with tuberculocidal germicidal _______

    use _% formaldehyde or _% gluteraldehyde arterial solution

    do cavity work

    have sufficient ____ exhange

    have annual physicals, HIV & __ skin testing, immunizations as needed
    soap

    3, 2

    air

    TB
  88. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Personal Health Precautions

    transfer remains with care, use ___ people

    keep remains covered during transfer __/from cot

    perform thorough terminal ___________
    two

    to

    disinfection
  89. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Minimum standards

    Use _________ sites for injection/drainage

    __-15 min/gal injection rate

    3-_ gal of solution (1 gal per 50 lbs)

    Supplemental chemicals

    Strength of solution: min _% formaldehyde
    multiple

    12

    4

    2
  90. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Administration

    Establish and maintain procedures and practices which will protect employees

    this includes:

    training

    use of PPE's

    good equipment

    documentation of activities
    According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Administration

    Establish and maintain procedures and practices which will protect employees

    this includes:

    training

    use of PPE's

    good equipment

    documentation of activities
  91. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Training education

    mode of ___________ transmissions

    items of barrier attire

    location of equipment

    emergency procedures

    disinfection protocols
    infectious
  92. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Work practices

    NFDA recommended these need to be developed
    According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Work practices

    NFDA recommended these need to be developed
  93. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Personal protective equipment
    SOP!

    Establish a min. required barrier attire
  94. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Medical
    HBV & TB shots, monitoring immunization levels
  95. According to the summary guidelines submitted to OSHA from the NFDA committee on infectious disease: Record keeping
    Complete embalming case reports, including PPE's worn
  96. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    rare (usually fatal) brain disease (usually in middle age) caused by an unidentified slow virus

    mimics dementia and alzheimers

    there is no diagnostic test for this disease in the living

    the prion can remain latent up to 25 yrs. before surfacing in an infected person

    there is no vaccine

    there is no cure – and no treatment

    • it is infectious, fast acting and always fatal
    • no embalming chemicals can destroy it

    common means of disinfection & sterilization won’t kill it
  97. When was CJD discovered/first diagnosed?
    in the 1920's
  98. Sporadic CJD
    mutation of protein gene into one that is abnormal

    called a prion ("pry-on")
  99. Familial CJD
    genetic in origin
  100. Iatrogenic CJD
    infectious type

    spread usually by means of hospital operation, contaminated instruments, transfusion fluids or transplant tissues
  101. What percentage of reported cases does sporadic CJD cases account for?

    - 1%

    - 5% - 10%

    - 80% - 85%
    80% - 85%
  102. What percentage of reported cases does familial CJD cases account for?

    - 1%

    - 5% - 10%

    - 80% - 85%
    5% - 10%
  103. What percentage of reported cases does iatrogenic CJD cases account for?

    - 1%

    - 5% - 10%

    - 80% - 85%
    1%
  104. Iatrogenic
    induced unintentionally by the medical treatment of a physician
  105. List the anatomy affected by CJD
    brain (highly infectious)

    cerebrospinal fluid (highly infectious)

    corneas

    blood

    urine lymph nodes

    liver

    bones (possible)

    lungs (possible)
  106. Embalming procedure when dealing CJD cases: infectious control

    wear _ pairs of gloves (never use vinyl)

    full gear is a _____
    3

    must
  107. Embalming procedure when dealing CJD cases: procedure details

    avoid causing __________ (think air) distribution

    watch out for contact with all tissues and body fluids

    do ___ aspirate the cavity!!
    aerosol

    not
  108. Embalming procedure when dealing CJD cases: cleaning

    use bleach (sodium hypochlorite), let stand as long as possible on surgaces but avoid contact with _______________

    soak instruments for _ hours or better yet dispose of instruments if budget allows for it
    formaldehyde (HCHO)

    2
  109. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: introduction
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Transmission by sexual contact with infected person or physical contact with contaminated blood, body fluids, secretions, and perinatally from mom to baby
  110. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: Definition of Health-Care workers
    persons whose activities involved contact with patients, blood or body fluids
  111. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: Risk to Health-Care workers
    very real
  112. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: Universal precautions
    exercise these guidelines

    routinely use appropriate barrier attire
  113. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: Precautions for autopsies or morticians' services
    be extra cautious of sharp edges

    use double gloving

    watch out for contact with body fluids
  114. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: environmental considerations
    use lots of running water to rinse table but watch for spills

    standard disinfection/sterilization techniques prove effective, be sure to wash instruments before soaking
  115. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: cleaning spills
    use germicidal agents listed with EPA as tuberculocidal

    bleach is effective
  116. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in Health-Care Settings: laundry and infective waste
    use common sense, do not handle soiled inens with bare hands, wash with a good, strong detergent and bleach
  117. What type of materials are used to diagnose and treat malignancies such as cancer?
    radioactive materials
  118. Chemotherapy
    the treatment of disease with chemincal agents and drugs

    all of these type of agents are toxic, even in small doses
  119. Are radioactive isotopes dangerous/lethal to the embalmer?
    Yes, if overexposure to them occurs
  120. If a deceased has received a large internal therapeutic dose of a radioactive isotope, the handling of the body pay pose problems of ______________ exposure for the surgeon, the pathologist or the ____________
    radiation, embalmer
  121. It is important for members of the healthcare industry to realize the existence of ___________ exposure, the ______________ of this problem and how to meet it
    radiation, magnitude
  122. It is equally important for members of the healthcare industry not to ________________ the danger of _____________ exposure and not to be _______________ fearful when the hazard is minimal or nonexistent
    exaggerate, radiation, unreasonably
  123. Radioactive isotope
    a chemical element that is similar in chemical properties to another element

    BUT differs in atomic weight and electric charge

    it emits radiation

    it disintegrates over time as it emits electromagnetic radiation

    aka radionuclide
  124. Can embalmers protect themselves from radiation exposure when working on an exposed case?
    YES! because radiation levels dimish over the square of the distance

    the embalmer can stay away from the affected sites of the body if known
  125. Isotope
    atoms of the same element but with different atomic masses due to a variation in the number of nucleus within the nucleus of the atom of each element

    unlike the isotopes used to treat cancer, most isotopes do not emit radiation
  126. Radiation protection (safety) officer
    a supervisor in an institution licensed to use radionuclides

    has the responsibility to establish procedures and made recommendations in the use of all radioactive matter
  127. T/F: An embalmer should not attempt to embalm a radiation-treated body unless a radiation safety officer has certified the body as safe
    true
  128. T/F: When embalming a radiation-treated body and the body has been certified as safe, the radiation safety officer will not give the embalmer any additonal precautions or recommendations for handling
    false - they will
  129. High levels of radiation can occur during treatment of _______________ diseases or through _______________ exposure
    malignant, occupational
  130. Millicurie
    that amount of radioactive material in which 37 million atoms disintegrate each second

    mCi
  131. Patients receiving large doses of ___________ isotopes must be hospitalized until the isotope content is not more than __ mCi
    radioactive, 30
  132. 30 mCi
    that amount of radioactive material in which one billion, 110 million atoms disintegrate each second
  133. With regard to bodies that die outside a hospital, the FD should ___ encounter more than __ mCi of radioactive isotope

    If the person has higher levels, they would not be released when they were alive; they would be kept in isolation

    If such a body is embalmed without an autopsy, use standard aspiration and injection methods. The hazard is minimal to the embalmer
    not, 30
  134. If the body's radioactivity is above the level of __ mCi and there is ___ to be an autopsy, the body should be embalmed in the hospital ________ under the direction of a ___________ protection officer
    30, not, morgue, radiation
  135. If a body contains appreciably more than __ mCi of any radioactive isotope and there is to be an autopsy with embalming following the autopsy, it should be done only under the advice of a __________ protection officer
    5, radiation
  136. Autopsied remains are not released until the level is at or below __ mCi
    5
  137. If the body is to be interred or cremated without embalming, there will be __ radiation hazard from external handling
    no
  138. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    _ pairs of rubber gloves should be worn

    with a very heavy rubber _______

    and the standard __________ precautions with PPE attire underneath should be worn
    throughout the entire embalming operation
    2

    apron

    universal
  139. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    utilize large quantities of __________ water at all times during the embalming procedure to flush drainage matter
    running
  140. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    minimize the time of close contact with the body.

    Consider working in pairs: one embalmer can _________ vessels and the other embalmer can _____ features
    raise, set
  141. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    When not actually performing a procedure, stand a distance from the body at least _ feet away

    This will substantially reduce the amount of exposure
    3
  142. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    special care should be taken to prevent the floor from being contaminated

    care should be taken that all ______ fluids are properly discharged down the drain

    In case of overflow or spillage, fluid should be taken up immediately using disposable good
    body
  143. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    instruments should be soaked in a good soap or detergent, then rinsed well with ___________ water
    running
  144. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    Gowns, towels, clothing, etc. should be monitored and stored for suitable decay (_______ decay) before being sent to the laundry
    atomic
  145. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    disposable waste matter should be collected in a suitable biohazard garbage bag/can and disposed of by ______________
    incineration
  146. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    Heavy, permanent-type rubber gloves should be thoroughly washed before being removed from the hands,

    then placed in a container of soap and water and allowed to soak and then stored in a suitable place until the __________ has decayed to a safe level
    radioactivity
  147. When dealing with radiation exposure:

    If the embalmer suffers any introduction of material from the body into lesions, the embalmer should wash the injured area copiously with _____________ water and thereafter consult with their physician or a ____________ safety officer
    running, radiation
  148. examples of substances used in diagnosis and treatment of malignancies:

    common radioactive isotopes used which emit radiation


    phosphorus (3_)

    cobalt (6_)

    strontium (8_)

    iodine (13_)

    gold (19_)

    radium (22_)
    common radioactive isotopes used which emit radiation

    phosphorus (32)

    cobalt (60)

    strontium (89)

    iodine (131)

    gold (198)

    radium (226)
  149. Pediculosis
    the state or condition of having lice
  150. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    it has a wide range of activity: it works against ___________, bacteria and fungi
    viruses
  151. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    has sufficient strength: ______ microbes
    kills
  152. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    acts in the presence of __________ (think liquid)
    water
  153. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    is stable, had a reasonably long ________ life
    shelf
  154. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    is non-corrosive to ________ instruments
    metal
  155. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    is fast acting
    :)
  156. Characteristics of a "good disinfectant"

    not highly toxic to living tissue and not injurious to the _____________ system
    respiratory

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