CH 16 The digestive system

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  1. What are the digestive functions and related processes?

    Mechanical processing




  2. What is the name of the inner lining of the digestive tract?

    A mucous membrane
  3. What fingerlike projections extend into the intestine and what is their purpose?
    Villi and they increase the area for absorption
  4. The oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and anus are lined by what type of epithelium
    Stratified squamous epithelia
  5. The remainer of the digestive tract is lined by what?
    simple columnar epithelium and contains secretory cells
  6. What is the second layer of loose connective tissue that is immediately deep to the muscularis mucosae?

    Contains large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
  7. What is the band of smooth muscle cells arranged in an inner circular layer and an outer longtitudinal layer?
    Muscularis externa
  8. What is a serious membrane that covers the muscularis externa?
  9. What suspends portions of the digestive tract? They are double sheets of serous membrane
  10. What is the process of moving material along the tract by contractions?
  11. What is the mechanical mixing of foods by muscular contractions in the digestive tract?
  12. What does the oral cavity do?
    Senses and analyzes material before swallowing

    Mechanically processes material

    Lubricates material by mixing it with mucus and saliva

    Begins digestion of carbs and lipids with enzymes
  13. what is another name for...


    Buccal cavity

  14. Primary functions of the tongue
    Mechanical processing by compression, abrasion, and distortion

    Manipulation to assist in chewing and to prepare the material for swallowing

    Sensory analysis by touch, temp and taste
  15. What are the three glands in the mouth
    Parotid gland

    Submandibular gland

    Sublingual gland
  16. What does saliva contain?
    IgA Salivary antibodies

  17. THe parotid glands secrete what?
    Salivary amylase, breaks down starches
  18. The submandibular and sublingual salivary do what?
    More buffers and mucus
  19. saliva is regulated by what nervous system?
  20. What part of the tooth marks the boundary between the root and crown?
  21. What covers the crown?
  22. what is each tooth made of?
  23. Where does the tooth get its nutrients as the dentin does not contain cells?
    The central pump cavity, through the root canal at the base of each tooth which has nerves and vessels
  24. what covers the dentin of the root, providing protection and anchoring the periodontal ligament?
  25. What are the blade shaped teeth found in the front of the mouth?
  26. What are conical teeth used for tearing or slashing?
  27. What is the opening in the diaphragm that the esophagus runs through?
    Esophageal hiatus
  28. What is the esophagus lined with?
    squamous stratified epithelium
  29. Which esophageal spincter is active contraction and prevents backflow of materials from stomach into esophagus?
    Lower esophageal sphincter
  30. What are the steps of deglutition?
    • Oral phase
    • Pharyngeal phase
    • Esophageal Phase
    • Bolus enters stomach
  31. What are the primary functions of the stomach?
    Temporary storage of ingested food

    Mechanical breakdown of ingested food

    Breakdown of chemical bonds in food items through acids and enzymes

    Production of intrinsic factor
  32. What is the smallest part of the stomach?
    the cardia
  33. What is the bulge of the stomach superior to the cardia?
  34. What sphincter regulates the flow of chume between the stomach and small intestine?
    Pyloric sphincter
  35. When the stomach is relaxed or empty, the mucosa contains a number of prominent ridges or folds called ______

    This allows the stomach to expand
  36. What cheif cells secrete a protein that is secreted into the stomach lumen that is converted.
    Pepsinogen and is converted to pepsin
  37. What are the stages ofgastric secretion?
    Cephalic phase

    Gastric Phase

    Intestinal phase
  38. What occurs in the cephalic stage?
    Sight, smell, taste or thought of food initiates this. Gastric juice production accelerates and salivation occurs
  39. What occurs in gastric activity during the gastric phase?
    Food arrives in the stomach, stretch receptors are stimulated. Myenteric plexus stimulates mixing waves in the stomach wall. Gastrin is released.

    Chyme is produced
  40. What occurs during the intestinal phase?
    Chyme enters small intestine.

    Enterogastric reflex occurs and inhibits neural stimulation of gastrin production and gastroc motility
  41. What are the three segments of the small intestine?


  42. Where is the bulk of of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occur in the small intestine?
  43. What hormone is stimulated by vagus nerve or arrival of food in the stomach.

    Or arrival of chyme containing large quantities of undigested proteins?
  44. Where is gastrin originated and what does it target?
    Stomach or duodeum

    targets stomach
  45. What are the effects of Gastrin?
    Stimulates production of acids and enzymes, increases motility
  46. What stimulates secretin?
    Arrival of chyme in the duodenum
  47. Where does secretin originate and what does it target?
    Originates in duodenum

    targets pancrease, stomach and liver
  48. Which GI hormone stimulates production of alkaline buffers, inhibits gastric secretion, increases rate of bile secretion
  49. What stimulates the arrival of chyme containing lipids and partially digested proteins?
    Cholecytokinin (CCK)
  50. What does Cholecytokinin (CCK) target?
    Pancreas, gallbladder, duodenum, stomach, CNS
  51. What does the arrival of chyme containing large quantities of fats and glucose secrete homonally?
    Gastric inhibitory peptide GIP
  52. What effects does Gastric Inihibitory peptide (GIP) do?
    Stimulates release of insulin

    Inhibits gastric secretion and motility
  53. What enzymes secreted from the Pancrease digest sugars and starches?
  54. What enzymes from the pancreas break down proteins?
  55. What are the four lobes of the liver called
    Left/Right lobes

    caudate and quadrate lobes
  56. What marks the division between the left and right lobes?
    Falciform ligament
  57. The galbladder is located under which lobe of the liver?
    Right lobe
  58. What is the basic functional unit of the liver?
    Liver lobules
  59. What are liver cells called?
  60. What are the phagocytic cells in the liver called?
    Kuppfer cells
  61. Where does the bile realeased from the __________ leave the liver through?
    bile canaliculi

    Common hepatic duct
  62. Bile in the common hepatic duct may either flow into the ______ or _______
    • common bile duct and into the duodenum or
    • cystic duct which leads to the gallbladder
  63. What are the liver functions?
    Metabolic regulation

    Hematological regulation

    Bile production
  64. What are the main functions of the large intestine
    The reabsorption of water and compaction of intestinal contents into feces

    The absorption of important vitamins freed by bacterial action

    The storage of fecal matter
  65. What are the three parts of the large intestine?


  66. What is the small pouch at the start of the cecum?
    VERMIFORM appendix
  67. What part of the descending colon empties into the rectum?
    Sigmoid colon
  68. What are the three longtitudinal bands of smooth muscle that run along the large intestine?
    Taeniae coli
  69. What are the two anal sphincters and which are voluntarily controlled?
    Internal and external

    External is voluntarily controlled
  70. Bacteria in the colon generate what three vitamins that supplement dietary supply?
    Vitamin K, clotting factors

    Biotin, glucose metabolism

    Vitamin B5, steroid hormones and neurotransmitters
  71. What are the building blocks of proteins?
    Amino acids
  72. Digestive enzymes break the bonds in proteins and lipids through what process?
  73. A product left after triglycerides are broken appart, resulting the mixture of fatty acids and monogluycerides interacting with bile salts are
  74. What are Fat soluble vitamins?
    A, D, E and K
  75. Which vitamin cannot be absorbed by intestinal mucosa unless bound by intristic factor.
    Vitamin B12
  76. During aging, the division rate of epithelial stem cells increases

    True or false
  77. When aging smooth muscle tone decreases?

    true or false
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CH 16 The digestive system
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