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2012-03-24 10:37:33
Fund Biology

Rita Luther Study Guide
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  1. What two types of chemical reactions are involved in glucose catabolism?
    Redox &substrate posphalation
  2. Name two electron carriers used during glycolysis and cellular respiration.
  3. In an oxidation-reduction reaction, what happens to hydrogens and electrons during oxidation?And what happens to them during reduction?
    • – Reduction: Gain of one or more electrons (hydrogens)
    • – Oxidation: Loss of one or more electrons (hydrogens)
  4. What are the starting reactants and end products of glucose catabolism? Is glucose catabolismexergonic or endergonic?
    • CO2 + H20
    • & it is exergonic because it releases energy
  5. What metabolic pathways of glucose catabolism occur in the presence of oxygen, what pathways occur in the absence of oxygen, and which one occurs in both?
  6. What is another name for in the presence of oxygen? What is another name for in the absence ofoxygen?
  7. What are the two phases of glycolysis?
  8. Which pathway generates more ATP molecules, fermentation or cellular respiration? Doesglycolysis or cellular respiration generate more ATP molecules?
  9. What are the three phases in cellular respiration? Where in the cell do each of these three phasesoccur? Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
  10. What is the starting reactant and end product of the following processes:GlycolysisFermentationPyruvate oxidation
  11. What is the starting reactant of the citric acid cycle? What energy-yielding products aregenerated from the citric acid cycle?
  12. Deffinition: 1. Potential energy from both an electrical gradient and a chemical gradient of H+ (proton)concentration that is generated within the inner mitochondrial membrane as a result ofproton pumping across the membrane by transmembrane proteins.
  13. Deffinition: 2. The process where the proton-motive force drives H+ (protons) back across the innermitochondrial membrane into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase to generateATP.
  14. Deffinition: 3. The series of membrane proteins and other components within the inner mitochondrialmembrane that is responsible for electron transport.
  15. The oxidation of these reduced electron carrier marks the start of electron transport.What are these electron carriers? How many protons are transported across the innermitochondrial membrane and how many electrons are passed into electron transport perreduced electron carrier molecule after oxidation? Where in the cell are the reducedelectron carriers located as they begin the electron transport pathway? Where in the cellare H+ (protons) moved to after oxidation of the electron carrier in a process involvingactive transport.
  16. At the end of electron transport, electrons are added onto what molecule to form the finalproduct of H2O?
  17. During metabolic pathway regulation, do high ATP and citrate levels inhibit or promote forglucose catabolism? Do high ADP levels and low citrate levels inhibit or promote for glucosecatabolism?