Card Set Information
basics for botany test 3, heredity
production of offspring
haploid gametes (produced by meiosis) from two individuals come together to form a zygote
A single individual may split, bud, or fragment giving rise to genetically identical offspring. Mitosis produces diploid cells.
Meiotic Division: First Division
crossing over occurs
separation of chromosome pairs (matching maternal and parternal chromosomes paired, then split)
HAPLOID cells produced
Meiotic Division: Second Division
sister chromatids separated
no crossing over, no chromosome pairing
cells produces with 2 chromatids each.
Haploid cells for sexual reproduction
Diploid combination of two gametes
fusion of male and female gametes
when two of one individual's gametes combine
When one plant is pollinated with pollen from another individual
A member of a chromosome pair that is similar in size, shape, and genetic constitution to it's match.
A chromatid from the same chromosome that was split.
A discrete unit of hereditary information that usually specifies a polypeptide (protien)
One of two or more alternative forms of a gene
A gene's location on the chromosome
The alleles an individual has
the expressed alleles
Dominant v Recessive
Dominant will be expressed over recessive. Recessive is only expressed in the absence of the dominant allele.
Principle of dominance
When two alternative forms of the same gene are present in an individual, often only one is expressed.
Principle of Segregation
When gametes form in meiosis, the alleles of each gene (found on homologous chromosomes) separate from each other. Each gamete recives 1 allele from each gene.
Principle of Independant Assortment
When two or more characters are examined in a single cross, each character is inherited without relation to the other.
A cross with individuals only differing in 1 trait
a cross involving individuals differeing in two characters (at two loci)
A cross to determine an individual's genotype
Individual has two matching alleles
Individual has two different alleles
a condition in which neither member of a pair of contrasting alleles is completely expressed.
(a heterozygote with a phenotype that is an intermediate of the parents' is produced.)
When more than 2 alleles for a trait exist
2 or more pairs of genes affect a trait in an additive fashion.