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prevention of contact with microorganisms
Define aseptic technique
all of the steps taken to prevent contact with microorganisms
What are the different sources of contamination to the surgical wound?
- surgical instruments & materials
Describe an aseptic surgical room?
- smooth, cleanable surfaces
- proper ventilation and air flow
How do we ensure that surgical instruments and other materials are properly sterilized?
run them through the autoclave
What should sterile personnel wear while in surgery?
- scrub suit
- scrub hands and arms
- sterile gowns and gloves
What are some ways to prepare a patient for surgery?
What do we need to do to the patient before surgery?
- clean dirt from hair and skin
- get rid o fany discharges (GI tract contents)
Define pack preparation
surgical materials made up into sterile packs
What are things that can be wrapped in a pack?
- scrub suits
- laparotomy pads
What is a standard pack and what is an individual pack?
- standard pack: general, all instruments
- individual pack: individual instruments so if an instrument gets dropped on the floor you don't have to open up a whole new pack
How should materials be wrapped for packs?
should be strong without tearing and with no holes
What kind of material can be used for wrapping packs?
Describe the envelope wrap.
- the pack is wrapped in such a way that it can be opened aseptically without touching the inside of the pack
- may double wrap for added security
- held together with indicator tape on outside
What happens if you pack a pack too tightly?
steam won't penetrate all the way to the middle
Why do we use trays in surgical packs?
to prevent instruments from poking holes in wrapping
Does autoclaving remove dirt?
What do we have to do to the instruments before we autoclave them?
What should be on the pack label?
- size and type (for gowns, scrub suits, drapes)
- date of sterilization
How long does a pack stay sterilized?
3 - 4 weeks
What do you do if sterile packs are out of date?
rewrap them and resterilize them
Steam needs to reach at least ___ degrees fharenheit for at least ___ minutes or ___ psi for at least ___.
- 250 degrees fharenheit
- 30 minutes
- 15 psi
- 15 minutes
Other than a steam autoclave, what are other ways to sterilize?
- gas (ethylene oxide)
- dry heat oven (not practical)
- boiling (not practical)
- chemical sterilization (cold pack) (not a good way)
When do we use for items that can't go through steam (example: plastic)?
use ethylene oxide
What are indicators?
tape or paper strips placed outside and inside packs to show that the pack has been properly sterilized
What do we use autoclave tape for?
- outside pack to show that it has been exposed to steam - does not prove all microbes in pack are killed
- a piece of tape can be placed inside pack to ensure all microbes have been killed
What are indicator strips?
placed inside pack and do not change color unless pack has been hot enough for long enough
What are gas indicator strips?
change color when adequately exposed to EO (ethylene oxide)
What are surgical gowns made of?
cloth or disposable paper
What is the purpose of a surgical gown?
sterile covering for operating room personnel to contain microbes on our clothes and bodies and to prevent contamination
How do we wrap gowns?
- accordion fold before wrapping
- front of gown and arms to the inside
How do we open and put on a sterile gown?
- hold gown by neck and let it fall open
- put arms into sleeves but not all the way through for closed gloving
- assistant ties in the back
What is purpose of scrubs?
- clean, loose fitting clothing to be worn only in the surgery suite
- prevent carrying contamination in
- prevent carrying contamination home
What is the purpose of drapes?
sterile covering for patient used to keep surgical field as aseptic as possible
What are the different types of drapes?
- window drapes
- four-corner drapes
How are the drapes secured to the patient?
towel clamps or sutured
What is a window drape?
a hole cut in the middle of the drape
What is a four-corner drape?
Four drapes used to create a window
What are the advantages and disadvantages to using the four-corner drape method?
- advantages: can control hole size, can be used to drape a more awkward location
- disadvantages: more complicated, more stuff to slide around
What is the purpose of surgical gloves?
- sterile covering for surgeon's hands
- stronger and stretchier than exam gloves
How do we reuse surgical gloves?
- wash, dry gloved hands
- lightly powder gloved hands (talc) so they don't get sticky
- remove gloves from hands
- turn inside out and glow up like a balloon to check for tears and holes
- pack left and right globes, same size, on correct sides of pack
- palm up, cuff folded so thumb is just sticking out
What is open gloving?
done with out gown
What is closed gloving?
- done after gown is put on
- hands stay inside the sleeves initially