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study of interactions of organisms with each other and their environment (biotic and abiotic)
all of the individuals of a species in one area
all interacting populations in one area
all the organisms and the environment
different individuals using the same limiting resources
competition between different species
Competition between members of the same species
- beneficial for herbivore
- Mechanical Defenses:
- waxy leaves
- spines and thorns
- Chemical Defenses
- tannins and other chemical defenses
two species living closely
One organism benefits, the other is hurt.
both individuals benefit
- Ex. Pollination
- Ex. Plant-Mycorrhizae interactions
One individual benefits, the other isn't affected.
Principle of Competitive Exclusion
two species with the same requiremenrts cannot coexist indefinitely.
two species living together...?
an adaptation in which toxic substances secreted by roots or shed leaves in hibit the establishment of competing plants nearby.
fungus that lives in a mutualistic relationship with most plants.
A plant which lives on another plant in commensalism.
the organism that a parasite feeds off of.
An organism that feeds off of another in a non-predatory manner.
a change in species composition as a function of time, usually following a disturbance.
the community once the area reaches equilibrium.
sequence of communities developing in a habitat devoid of life and soil.
Lichens often part of the process.
progression of community after habitat is destroyed.
first species to colonize an area devoid of life and soil. Often lichens.
an organism that produces it's own sugar using abiotic energy (chemical or light)
consumes other organisms for energy
breaks down decaying organic matter
comsumes animals for energy
eats producers or other consumers; heterotrophs
level of consumption
a model to illustrate the consumption of organisms
Pyramid of Energy
- Producers at the bottom.
- Primary Consumers.
- Secondary Consumers.
- Tertiary Consumers.