Botany: Biomes

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Author:
eeliz1
ID:
143393
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Botany: Biomes
Updated:
2012-03-23 22:06:40
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biomes
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Description:
Biome basics
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  1. Biome
    a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by a similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
  2. Key Factors in Species Distribution
    • temperature
    • precipitation (rain shadow)
    • altitude
    • soil
    • fire
  3. Tundra
    • High lattitudes/mtns
    • little precipitation
    • low water availability (locked in ice)
    • trees absent
    • permafrost
  4. Permafrost
    an ever present layer of ice in the ground
  5. Boreal Forest
    • Also known as the taiga
    • Near 50-60% N of equator
    • Very shory, cold days in winter
    • May have permafrost
    • Annual herbs absent (for the most part)
    • Mosses and lichens common.
  6. Temperate Rainforest
    • Mild winters with high rainfall and fog.
    • Occur near ocean
    • Less seasonality than deciduous forest
    • evergreen trees common
    • lower species diversity than rainforest
  7. Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • Moderate precipitation, evenly distrubuted.
    • 75-250 cm rain/yr
    • warm summers
    • cold, freezing winters
    • temperature driven annual growth cycle.
    • -deciduous
    • -spring ephemerals
    • -summer herbaceous plants
  8. Temperate Grassland
    • Rain fall 30-85 cm/yr
    • hot, wet summers
    • cold winters
    • praries (N Am) or steppes (Asia)
    • Perennial grasses dominate
    • fire important
    • Shortgrass prarie: near drought conditions, short grasses.
    • TallGrass Prarie: moister, tall grasses.
  9. Prairie
    North American grasslands
  10. Steppe
    Asian grassland (and I think S. Am)
  11. Chaparral
    • 30-40 degrees N and S of equator
    • Mild winters
    • winter rain, summer grought
    • evergreen shrubs
    • fire helps ecosystem
  12. Desert
    • occur in rain shadows
    • low rainfall (less than 25 cm)
    • soils are shallow, little organic matter
    • hot and cold
    • Plant Adaptations:
    • -annual life history
    • -succulent life form
    • -CAM photosynthesis
    • -Deep taproot
    • -Leaf Adaptations (small leaves, trichomes, thick cuticles)
  13. Savanna
    • High temps.
    • Seasonal drought
    • rainfall 90-150 cm/yr
    • Deciduous trees are common. Shed leaves in dry season.
    • Grazing and fire important.
    • Shrubs and trees sparsely distributed
    • Grassland matrix:
    • -perennials abundant
    • -annuals rare
  14. Tropical Rainforest
    • Relatively constant temperature
    • high rainfall
    • trees dominate
    • most plants are evergreen
    • high species diversity
    • intense competition for light

    Ex. Costa Rica
  15. Liana
    use vertical support to get to canopy for light
  16. Epiphyte
    a plant that grows on another plant
  17. Rain Shadow
    An arid area created by a mountain which contains the precipitation on one side of the mountain, leaving the other arid.

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