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a large, relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by a similar climate, soil, plants, and animals.
Key Factors in Species Distribution
- precipitation (rain shadow)
- High lattitudes/mtns
- little precipitation
- low water availability (locked in ice)
- trees absent
an ever present layer of ice in the ground
- Also known as the taiga
- Near 50-60% N of equator
- Very shory, cold days in winter
- May have permafrost
- Annual herbs absent (for the most part)
- Mosses and lichens common.
- Mild winters with high rainfall and fog.
- Occur near ocean
- Less seasonality than deciduous forest
- evergreen trees common
- lower species diversity than rainforest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
- Moderate precipitation, evenly distrubuted.
- 75-250 cm rain/yr
- warm summers
- cold, freezing winters
- temperature driven annual growth cycle.
- -spring ephemerals
- -summer herbaceous plants
- Rain fall 30-85 cm/yr
- hot, wet summers
- cold winters
- praries (N Am) or steppes (Asia)
- Perennial grasses dominate
- fire important
- Shortgrass prarie: near drought conditions, short grasses.
- TallGrass Prarie: moister, tall grasses.
North American grasslands
Asian grassland (and I think S. Am)
- 30-40 degrees N and S of equator
- Mild winters
- winter rain, summer grought
- evergreen shrubs
- fire helps ecosystem
- occur in rain shadows
- low rainfall (less than 25 cm)
- soils are shallow, little organic matter
- hot and cold
- Plant Adaptations:
- -annual life history
- -succulent life form
- -CAM photosynthesis
- -Deep taproot
- -Leaf Adaptations (small leaves, trichomes, thick cuticles)
- High temps.
- Seasonal drought
- rainfall 90-150 cm/yr
- Deciduous trees are common. Shed leaves in dry season.
- Grazing and fire important.
- Shrubs and trees sparsely distributed
- Grassland matrix:
- -perennials abundant
- -annuals rare
- Relatively constant temperature
- high rainfall
- trees dominate
- most plants are evergreen
- high species diversity
- intense competition for light
Ex. Costa Rica
use vertical support to get to canopy for light
a plant that grows on another plant
An arid area created by a mountain which contains the precipitation on one side of the mountain, leaving the other arid.
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