Hematology & Immunity

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  1. Blood
    Connective tissue composed of a liquid extra cellular matrix (blood plasma)
  2. Interstitial Fluid
    Fluid that bathes body cells and is constantly renewed by blood
  3. pH range of blood
  4. What are the formed elements of blood?
    45% formed elements (55% plasma)

    • Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
    • White Blood Cells (WBCs)
    • Platelets (Cell fragments)
  5. the Buffy Coat is...
    • Thin layer between RBCs & plasma in centrifuged blood
    • Is approx 1% of formed elements
  6. The definition of Hematocrit is...
    Percentage of total blood volume that is occupied by RBCs
  7. Anemia is...
    Lower than normal RBCs
  8. Polycythemia
    • Higher than normal RBCs
    • Blood becomes harder to pump
  9. Hemopoiesis (or Hematopoiesis)
    Process by which formed elements of blood develop
  10. Where does hemopoiesis occur in
    an embryo?
    a fetus?
    after birth?
    an embryo - yolk of sac

    a fetus - liver, spleen, thymus, & lymph nodes

    after birth - Red bone marrow
  11. Red Bone Marrow
    Highly vascular connective tissue located in spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.

    • Infants are born with all red bone marrow
    • As we grow older, red is replaced with yellow because rate of blood cell formation decreases
  12. Pluripotent Stem Cells are...
    Red bone marrow cells derived from mesenchyme

    • are 0.1% of red bone marrow cells
    • can develop into different types of cells
  13. Nitric Oxide (NO)
    A gaseous hormone produced by endothelial cells that line blood vessels

    Binds to hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin releases NO causing vasodilatation
  14. Vasodilatation
    • Increase in blood vessel diameter
    • Occurs when smooth muscle in vessel wall relaxes
    • Improves blood flow and enhances oxygen delivery to cells near site of NO release
  15. Hemoglobin
    • Oxygen carrying protein found in RBCs
    • Pigment gives whole blood its red color
    • Each molecule binds 4 oxygen molecules
    • Iron ion (Fe2+) found at center of each Heme ring
  16. Erythropoiesis
    The production of Red Blood Cells Starts in red bone marrow
  17. Proerythroblast
    • Precursor RBC
    • Divides several times producing cells that synthesize hemoglobin
    • Becomes a Reticulocyte
  18. Reticulocyte
    • Red Blood Cell after it ejects its nucleus
    • Leaves red bone marrow for bloodsteams
    • Becomes a mature RBC within 2 days
  19. Hypoxia
    Cellular O2 deficiency
  20. White Blood Cells are also called...
    Leukocytes or WBCs
  21. An increase in number of WBCs which is a normal response to stress
  22. Abnormally low number of WBCs usually caused by radiation, chemo, or shock
  23. Emigration aka Diapedesis
    Process by which WBCs leave bloodstream and stick to endothelium & squeeze between cells

    WBCs squeeze thru capillary slits in response to cytokines
  24. Chemotaxis
    Phenomenon in which cells, bacteria, etc. direct their movements according to certain chemical in their environment

    Leukocytes responding to damaged body tissues
  25. The Granular Leukocytes are...
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
    • Neutrophil
  26. The Agranular Leukocytes are...
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  27. A high count of these cells indicate elevate a parastitic infection or allergic condition
  28. The least common type of granulocyte is
  29. This WBC has granules that obscure nucleus
  30. Most common type of WBC
  31. What color do their granules stain?
    • Eosinophils - red to orange
    • Basophils - blue to purple
    • Neutrophils - lilac
  32. Number of lobes in nucleus
    • Eosinophils - 2
    • Basophils - 2
    • Neutrophils - Begin with 2 to 5, number of lobes decrease with age of cell
  33. This WBC ingests bacteria via phagocytosis
  34. Defensins are...
    • Protein found in Neutrophils
    • Acts as broad antibiotic against bacteria & fungi
  35. Lymphocytes are mostly found (in)...
    • Traveling thru lymphoid tissues & lymph
    • Spend very little time spent in blood
  36. Lymphocytes
    Elevated numbers mean...
    Low levels mean...
    • Elevated - viral infection
    • Low - Immunodeficiency (HIV or AIDS)
  37. Three types of lymphocytes are...
    • Natural Killer Cells
    • B Cells
    • T Cells
  38. Kidney or horseshoe shaped WBC
  39. Monocytes are called __________ when they are transported tissue
  40. Kupffer Cells
    A fixed mascrophage found in the liver
  41. Major Histocompatibility (MHC) Antigens
    • Proteins found in WBCs that protrude from plasma membrane into extracellular fluid
    • Act as cell ID markers
    • Unique for each person (except identical twins)
  42. Scientific Words for
    Red Blood Cell
    White Blood Cell
    • Erythrocytes
    • Leukocytes
    • Thrombocytes
  43. Thrombocytes are...
    Small irregular shaped cell fragments derived from fragmentation of precursor megakaryocytes

    aka Platelets
  44. Thrombopoietin
    Hormone that influences myeloid stem cells to develop into megakaryocyte-colony-forming cells thatdevelop into precursor cells (megakaryoblasts)
  45. Blood Clot
    Network of insoluble protein fibers (Fibrin) in which formed elements of blood are trapped
  46. Blood Serum is...
    Component of blood without cells, clotting factors (fibrinogen)
  47. Embolus is

    Pulmonary Embolism is
    A blood clot, air bubble, fat from broken bone, or piece of debris transported by bloodstream

    When embolus lodges in lungs
  48. Antigen
    Substance that when introduced triggers production of antibody by immune system
  49. Blood Type B has what antigens and anti-bodies?
    • B antigens on RBCs
    • anti-A antibodies in blood plasma
  50. What is Rh Blood Group / Type?
    • Named after Rhesus monkey on which was discovered
    • Either Rh+ or Rh-
    • Blood plasma does not contain anti-Rh antibodies
    • But if Rh-receives Rh+ transfusion body will make anti-Rh antibodies
  51. Immune System Chart
    Image Upload
  52. Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity
    • Provide nonspecific defense
    • Defenses present at birth
    • Acts against all microbes in same way
    • Does not involve specific recognition of microbe
    • Has no memory component (cannot remember
    • previous contact)

    • 1st Line of Defense
    • Physical and chemical barriers of skin
    • Also includes mucous membranes, digestive enzymes

    • 2nd Line of Defense:
    • Natural Killer cells, phagocytes, inflammation, fever, interferons, chemotaxis, release of cytokines
  53. Four cardinal signs of inflammation are...
    • Redness
    • Heat
    • Swelling
    • Pain
  54. Adaptive (Specific) Immunity
    • Specific recognition of microbe once it has breached the innate immunity defenses
    • Slower to respond than Innate
    • Has memory component
    • Involves lymphocytes (T Cells & B Cells)

    Body's 3rd line of defense
  55. Antimicrobial Substances
    Substances that discourage microbial growth
  56. Interferons (IFNs)
    • Proteins produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, & fribroblasts
    • Part of 2nd Line of Defense
    • Body's response to a viral infection
    • IFNs diffuse to uninfected neighboring cells
    • Neighboring cells can prevent virus spreading
    • Prevent virus from replicating (after 7-10 days)
    • CANNOT prevent virus from penetrating host cells
    • Three types (alpha-IFN, beta-IFN, gamma-IFN)
  57. Complement System
    • Group of normally inactive proteins in blood plasma
    • 2nd Line of Defense

    • When activated...
    • Causes cytolysis of microbes
    • Promotes phagocytosis Contributesto inflammation
  58. Iron-Binding Proteins
    • Inhibit growth of bacteria by reducing amount of available iron
    • 2nd Line of Defense
  59. Antimicrobial Proteins (AMPs)
    Short peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity
  60. Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells)
    • 5-10% of lymphocytes in blood are natural killer cells
    • Present in blood, spleen, lymph nodes, red bone marrow
    • Attack any abnormal plasma membrane proteins
    • Kill wide variety of infected body cells & tumor cells
    • Release toxic granules on target
    • Granules contain Perforin & Granzymes
    • Kills cells but NOT microbes inside (destroyed by phagocytes)
  61. Phagocytes
    • Cells that perform phagocytosis
    • Neutrophils & Macrophages (Fixed &wandering)
    • Migrate to infected area
  62. Inflammation
    Nonspecific, defensive response to tissue damage

    • Can be a result of…
    • Pathogens, abrasions, chemical irritations, distortion, disturbance of cell, extreme temperatures

    • Four
    • characteristics à redness, pain, heat, & swelling

    • May cause loss of function to infected area
    • An attempt to dispose of microbes or toxins
    • Prepares body for tissue repair & restore tissue homeostasis
  63. Three Steps of Inflammation
    • Vasodilation & increase permeability of blood vessels
    • Emigration of phagocytes from interstitial fluid
    • Tissue repair
  64. Fever
    • Abnormally high body temperature
    • Occurs because hypothalamic thermostat is reset Common during infection & inflammation
    • Elevated temp intensifies effect of IFNs
    • Prevent optimal temp for pathogens & microbes to grow
    • Sequesters iron & zinc in liver (bacteria need them to grow)
  65. T-Cells
    • Lymphocyte that triggers actions of other lymphocytes
    • Macrophage capture non-self cell
    • T-Helper Cell binds & secretes cytokine
    • Cytokine signals Cytotoxic T-Cell
    • T-Cell responds thru chemotaxis
    • T-Cell destroys non-self cell
Card Set:
Hematology & Immunity
2012-05-19 17:47:31
Blood Immune System

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