Psych 19 Ch. 9
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Greater than 20 percent increase over healthy weight, based on body mass index (BMI)-a ratio of weight to height associated with body fat.
A BMI above the 85th percentile for a child is considered slightly overweight, above the 95th percentile is obese
Rough and Tumble Play
Friendly chasing and play-fighting
Stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises.
Concrete operational stage
Extends from about 7 to 11 years and marks a major turning point in cognitive development. Thought is far more logical, flexible, and organized than it was earlier.
The capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
The ability to seriate or order items along a quantitative dimension, mentally
Their mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces such as their neighborhood or school
Repeating the information to herself
Grouping related items together
Creating a relationship, or shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
Process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
Whole language Approach
Argues that reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning. From the begininng, children should be exposed to text in its complete form - stories, poems, letters, posters and lists - so that they can appreciate the communivative function of written language
Believing that children should first be coached on phonics - the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds. Only after mastering these skills should they get complex reading material
Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence
Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three intelligences to achieve success in life according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community.
The three broad, interacting intelligences:
1.Analytical Intelligence: or information processing skills
2.Creatice Intelligence: the capacity to solve novel problems
3.Practical Intelligence: Application of intellectual skills in everyday situations.
Theory of multiple intelligences
Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intelligence. Gardner proposes at least eight independent intelligences.
Refers to a set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information.
Fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype - can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance.
An innovation consistent with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support.
The teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules and decision making and does most of the talking. Students are relatively passive - listening, responding when called on and completing teacher-assigned tasks. Their progress is evaluated by how well they keep pace with a uniform set of standards for their grade.
Encourages students to construct their own knowledge. Although constructivist approaches vary, many are grounded in Piaget's theory, which views children as active agents who reflect on and coordinate their own thoughts rather than absorbing those of others.
A glance inside a constructivist classroom reveals richly equipped learning centers, small groups and individuals solving self-chosen problems and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs. Students are evaluated by considering their progress in relation to their own prior development.
Children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children acquire knowledge and strategies from working together, they become competent and advance in cognitive and social development
Small groups of classmates work toward common goals
Educational self-fulfilling prophecies
Children adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them
Students with learning difficulties are placed in regular classrooms for all or part of the school day, a practice designed to prepare them for participations in society and to combat prejudices against individuals with disabilities
Great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. As a result, their achievement is considerably behind what would be expected on the basis of their IQ
Displaying exceptional intellectual strengths
The ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate - something others have not thought of that is useful in some way
The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem. Divergent thinking contrasts with Convergent thinking
Involves arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests
Outstanding performance in a specific field
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