Psychology 101

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  1. Classical conditioning
    a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
  2. The Unconditioned Stimulus
    is a stimulus that evokes an unconditional response without previous conditioning.

    wistle and spray meat poder
  3. Unconditioned Response
    An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stumulus that occurs without previous conditioning

    • Dog Salivated with a wistle
  4. Conditioned Stimulus
    A previously neutral stimuls that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response

    skared of destist seens little
  5. Conditioned Response
    A learned reaction to condtioned sitmuls that occurs beacuse of previous conditioning
  6. Extinction
    The Gradual Weaking and disaprpearance of a condiotioned response tendency
  7. Spontaneaous Recvery
    is the reapearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
  8. Stimulus Generalization
    When an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.

    The more similar the more likely it will occur
  9. Stimulus Discrimination
    occurs when an organism does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
  10. Higher-order conditioning
    is when a conditoned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditoned stimulus
  11. Reinforcement
    occurs when an event following response increases an organism's tendency to make that responser
  12. Shaping
    the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired response
  13. Primary reinforcers
    are events are inherently reinforcing bcuz they satisfy biologinal needs: Food, water, warmth, sex, and affection
  14. Secondary or condtioned reinforcers
    are events that acquire reinforncing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers: Money, good frades, attention, flattery, praise and applause
  15. Positive Reinforcement
    occurs when a respomse is stregthned bcuz it si followed by the presintation of a rewarding stimulus
  16. Negative Reinforcement
    occurs when a respnse is streghtned bcuz it is folloed by the removal of an aversive(unpleasant) stimulus
  17. Attention
    Involves focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events
  18. Elaboration
    Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
  19. Short-term Memory
    is a limited capacity sotre that can maintain unrehearser information for up to 20 seconds
  20. Sensory Memory
    preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only for a fraction of a second
  21. Long-term Memory
    is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time

    may last weeks, months, or years
  22. Levels of processing theory
    proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes

    in order of depth: Structural encoding, phonemic encoding and semacting encoding
  23. Flashbulb Memories
    which are usually vivid and detailed recollectiong of mometous events
  24. Schema
    is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object of sequence of events
  25. Repression (motivated forgetting)
    keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
  26. Psychological Test
    a standardized measure of a sample of a persons behavior.

    • *they measure the individual differences among people
    • *they represent samples of a persons behaviour
  27. Intelligence test
    Measure general mental ability and intellectual potential
  28. Achivement tests
    measure previous learning instead of potential
  29. Standardization
    refers to the uniform procedures used in administering and scoring a test
  30. Percentile Score
    Indicates that percentage of peoplewho score at or below the score one has obtained
  31. Reliability
    Regers to the measurement consistency
  32. Validity
    regers to the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
  33. Heritability of IQ
    around 60%
  34. Personality Test
    Measure various aspects of personality including motives, interests, values, and attitudes

    Personality trades
  35. Alfred Binet
    diveresed 1st intelligence test in order to predict the school performance of children
  36. types of intellegence
    • Verbal Intelligence
    • Practical Intelligence
    • Social INtelligence
  37. Phonemes
    the smallest speech units in a language that can be distiguished perceptually

    • DIS- like
  38. The English Language is composed
    • of 40-45 phonemes
    • corresponding to roughly 26 letters of the alphabet plus several variations
  39. Morphenes
    are the smallest units of meaning in a language

    Single meaning

    • Un-Frind-ly
  40. Syntax
    is a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into phrases and sentences
  41. Skinner theory language
    proposed that children learn language the same way they learn everything else

    through imitation, reinforcement, and shaping
  42. Nativist theory
    proposed that humans are equpped with a LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DRIVE- an innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning og language
  43. Evolutionary theory
    Language allows humans to acquire information about the world seconhand
  44. Linguistic relativity theory
    the hypothesis that ones language determines the nature of ones thought
  45. Trial and Error
    involves trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works.
  46. Risky decision theory
    involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty
  47. Subjective Utility
    represents what an outcome is personally worth to the individual
  48. girl interrupted diagnosis
    Borderline personality
  49. Language
    consists of symbols that convey meaning and rules for combining these symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
  50. Language is Generative
    Meaning a limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate and endless array of meanings
  51. Problem solving
    refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily available
  52. Levels of processing theory
    proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes

    In order of depth: sturctural encoding, phonemic encoding, and semantic encoding
  53. Hippocampal Region of the Brain
    is a key player in long term memory processes

    it is oe of the first areas to sustain signigicant damage in the course of Alzheimers disease
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Psychology 101
psy 101
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