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2012-03-24 06:51:03
Fund Biology

Rita Luther Study Guide
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  1. What two types of chemical reactions are involved in glucose catabolism?
    Oxidation-reductionreactions, substrate phosphorylation reactions
  2. Name two electron carriers used during glycolysis and cellular respiration.
    NADH and FADH2
  3. In an oxidation-reduction reaction, what happens to hydrogens and electrons during oxidation?And what happens to them during reduction?
  4. What are the starting reactants and end products of glucose catabolism? Is glucose catabolismexergonic or endergonic?
  5. What metabolic pathways of glucose catabolism occur in the presence of oxygen, what pathwaysoccur in the absence of oxygen, and which one occurs in both?
  6. What is another name for in the presence of oxygen? What is another name for in the absence ofoxygen?
  7. What are the two phases of glycolysis?
    Energy investing and energy harvesting phases
  8. Which pathway generates more ATP molecules, fermentation or cellular respiration? Doesglycolysis or cellular respiration generate more ATP molecules?
  9. What are the three phases in cellular respiration?
    Where in the cell do each of these three phases occur? Where in thecell does glycolysis occur?
    • Pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, andthe electron transport chain.
    • Cytoplasm.
  10. What is the starting reactant and end product of the following processes:GlycolysisFermentationPyruvate oxidation
    Pyruvate (start), Acetyl coA (end)
  11. What is the starting reactant of the citric acid cycle?
    What energy-yielding productsare generated from the citric acid cycle?
    • Acetyl coA
    • NADH, FADH2, ATP
  12. Deffinition: Potential energy from both an electrical gradient and a chemical gradient of H+ (proton)concentration that is generated within the inner mitochondrial membrane as a result ofproton pumping across the membrane by transmembrane proteins.
  13. Deffinition: The process where the proton-motive force drives H+ (protons) back across the innermitochondrial membrane into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase to generateATP.
  14. The series of membrane proteins and other components within the inner mitochondrialmembrane that is responsible for electron transport.
  15. The oxidation of these reduced electron carrier marks the start of electron transport.What are these electron carriers?
    How many protons aretransported across the inner mitochondrial membrane and how many electrons are passedinto electron transport per reduced electron carrier molecule after oxidation? Where inthe cell are the reduced electron carriers located as they begin the electron transportpathway? Where in the cell are H+ (protons) moved to after oxidation of the electroncarrier in a process involving active transport.
    • NADH and FADH2.
    • Intermembrane space
  16. At the end of electron transport, electrons are added onto what molecule to form the finalproduct of H2O?
  17. During metabolic pathway regulation, do high ATP and citrate levels inhibit or promote forglucose catabolism?
    Do high ADP levels and low citrate levels inhibit or promote forglucose catabolism?
    • Inhibit.
    • Promote.
  18. What are the major reactants and products of photosynthesis?
    Where in the cell does photosynthesis occur?
  19. What electron carrier is used in photosynthesis?
  20. What are the light reactions and the light independent reactions and where in the cell do theytake place? What major products does each process produce?
  21. What types of photon-molecule interactions occur? How do these interactions affect colors thatwe see?
    Wavelengths not absorbed (i.e. transmitted or reflected) contribute to the color we see.
  22. What occurs during non-cyclic transport?
    Cyclic electron transport?
    • Photosystem II then I. NADPH and ATP are made.
    • Just ATP is made.
  23. How do photosystems and pigments play a role in transferring light energy to chemical energy?
  24. What is the Calvin cycle? How is Rubisco involved in this cycle? What are the end products ofthis cycle?
  25. What is the process of prokaryotic cell division called?
    Where does DNAreplication begin on the DNA molecule in these cells?
    Binary Fission.
  26. What are different phases of cell cycle in eukaryotic cells (during interphase, mitosis, ormeiosis)? What processes occur in these phases? In what part of the cell cycle is the DNAcompact or not compact? How is the cell cycle regulated?
  27. How is mitosis different or similar to meiosis? Which process generates genetically identicaldaughter cells and which one creates genetic diversity?
    Mitosis generates identical daughtercells compared to the parent cell. Meiosis generates daughter cells with genetic diversity.
  28. How many of each chromosome is present:In a haploid cell?
    A diploid cell?
    • One of each.
    • Two of each.
  29. How are asexual and sexual reproduction different?
  30. What are potential problems that may arise during cell division?
  31. What are two forms of cell death and how do they differ?
  32. What is an oncogene?
    What isa tumor suppressor? When can each of these two classes of proteins contribute to cancerdevelopment?
    A gene that normally promotes for cell cycling and when mutated in aspecific way will contribute to overactive cell cycling (which may contribute to cancer).