Define Mendel’s first law of inheritance. Define Mendel’s second law of inheritance.
Mendel’s First Law of Segregation: Each gametereceives one allele of a gene.
Mendel’s Second Law (Law of IndependentAssortment): Independent assortment of allelesduring gamete formation.
What is the difference between a character and a trait? What is a dominant versus a recessive trait?
What was the ratio of dominant to recessive traits consistently seen in Mendel’s experiments that looked at inheritance of one trait?
Character: Observable physical feature;flower color
Trait: Form of a character; purple or whiteflower
What is true breeding and why is this important to genetic studies?
What is the differencebetween self-pollination and cross-pollination?
True-breeding: A pure line consistently with the same traits
What is an allele?
What is the difference between heterozygous and homozygous?
Alleles: Different forms of a gene
Heterozygous (heterozygote): Two different alleles
Homozygous (homozygote): Two of the same alleles
How is the genotype different than the phenotype?
Phenotype: Physical appearance
Genotype: Genetic constitution
If you cross a plant that is Aa (yellow flowers is dominant; white flowers are recessive) with a plant that is aa, what are the probabilities of the different genotypes possible?
What is thepercentage of possible phenotypes?
What is the difference of a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross?
Monohybrid=just one specific set of alleles spreading
Dihybrid=two diff. types of alleles spreading
How do you verify that a dominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous for the dominant allele?
What are the possible phenotypes in the second generation from a dihybrid cross of a plant that isa pure line having yellow and round peas and a pure line having green and wrinkled peas (round is dominant and wrinkled is recessive; yellow is dominant and green is recessive)?
What is the probability of the different phenotypes?
In human inheritance, what is the difference between dominant and recessive inheritance?
Which form of inheritance displays a high incidence of unaffected heterozygotes “carriers”?
Name three types of allele interactions and what is the mechanism of each?
What are three types of genetic interactions?
Define Epistasis? Heterosis?
What is meant by gene-environment interactions?
What is penetrance and expressivity?
What are quantitative traits?
What is a genetic map?
How are recombination frequencies used to establish a genetic map?
What is primary sex determination?
Secondary sex determination?
Among chromosomal abnormalities, how can an individual with two X chromosomes be male?
How can an individual with an X and a Y chromosome be female?
What is the SRY gene?
The gene that determines color distinction (color blindness if mutated) is on which chromosome?
What is meant by cytoplasmic inheritance?
In prokaryotes, what happens during conjugation?
What types of genetic material can be transferred from the donor to the recipient cell?
How can a bacterial cell acquire antibioticresistance?