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The __ consists of the __ beating in unison (__) followed by the contraction of both __ (__), then the entire heart relaxes for a brief moment. (__).
- cardiac cycle
- atrial systole
- ventricular systele
1. During the __, _ within the heart chambers rises and falls with the __ and __ of __ and __.
2. When the __ fill, pressure in the __ is greater than that of the __, which forces the __ open.
3. Pressure inside __ rises further as they contract, forcing the remaining blood into the __.
4. When __ contract, pressure inside them increases sharply, causing __ to close and the __ and the __ to open.
4a) As the __ contract, __ contract, pulling on __ and preventing the __ of blood through the __.
- 1) cardiac cycle; contraction/ relaxation/ atria/ ventricles
- 2) atria/ atria/ ventricles/ AV valves
- 3) atria/ ventricles
- 4) ventricles/ AV vales/ aortic/ pulmonary valves
- 4a) ventricles/ papillary mucles/ chordae tendinae/ backflow/ AV valves
1) What are heart sounds due to?
2) What can they be described as?
3) When does the first sound (lub) occur?
4) When does the second sound (dup)occur?
- 1) vibrations in heart tissues as blood rapidly changes velocity within the heart
- 2) lub-dup sound3) occurs as ventricles contract adn AV valves are closing
- 4) occurs as ventricles relax and aortic and pulmonary valves are closing
Cardiac Conduction System
1) Specialized cardiac muscle tissue conducts impulses throughout the __ and comprises the __.
2) A __ mass of specialized cardiac muscle called the __, located on the __, generates the impulses for the __.
3) Impulses spread next to the __, it contracts, and impulses travel to the __ leading to the __ located int he __.
4) Branches of the __ give rise to __ leading to __; these fibers stimulate contraction of the __ at the same time the ventricles contract.
1) myocardium/ cardiac conduction system
2) self-exciting/ sinoatrial node (SA node or pacemaker)/ posterior right atrium/ heartbeat
3) atrial syncytium/ junctional fibers/ atrioventricular node (AV node)/ septum
4) AV bundle/ Purkinje fibers/ papillary muscles/ papillary muscles
1) What is an electrocardiogram?
recording of the electrical changes that occur during a cardiac cycle
Regulation of the Cardiac Cycle
1) The amount of blood pumped at any one time must adjust to the current needs of the body (when is more needed?)
2) The __ is innervated by branches of the __, so the __ controls __.
2a) __ speed up and __ slow down heart rate.
3) The __ of the __ maintains a balance between the __ and __ divisions of the NS
4) Impulses from __ or __ may also influence __, as do __ and the concentrations of certain ions.
1) during strenuous exercise
- 2) SA node/ sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions/ CNS/ HR
- 2a) Sympathetic impulses/ parasympathetic impulses
3) cardiac control center/ medulla oblongata/ parasympathetic and sympathetic/
4) cerebrum/ hypothalamus/ HR/ BT/