NS 2420

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NS 2420
2012-03-27 14:26:57

Exam 2
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  1. Eating Disorder
    pyschiatric condition involving extreme body dissatisfaction and long term eating patterns
  2. Disordered Eating
    Variety of abnormal or atypical eatng behaviors used to reduce weight
  3. Eating disorder contributing factors
    • family environment
    • unrealistic media images
    • sociocultural values
    • personality traits
    • genetic and bilogical factors
  4. Anorexia Nervosa Personality Traits
    • exhibit increased rates of: obsessive complulsive behaviors
    • perfectionism
    • socially inhibited
    • compliant
    • emotinally restrained
  5. Bulimia Nervosa Personality Traits
    • Exhibit increased rates of: impulsive
    • low self esteem
    • extroverted
    • erratic personlaity
    • style that seeks attention and admiration
  6. Genetic and Biological Factors
    • The probability of probablitiy of ahving an eating disorder is several times hogher if a biological relative also has an eating disorder
    • Very difficlut to seperate genetic and environmental influences
  7. Anorexia Nervosa
    • medical disorder in which unhealthy behaviors are used to maintain a body weight less than 85% of expected weight
    • 90-95% girls
    • 0.5-1% of Us females will develop anorexia
    • 5-20% of females with anorexia will die from complications wihtihn 10 years of diagnosis
  8. Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms:
    • extremely restrictive eating practices
    • self stavation
    • intense fear of weight gain
    • amenorrhea: no mentrual periods for at least 3 months
    • unhealthful body image
  9. Anorexia Nervosa Heatlh risk
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • cardiovasular problems
    • low blood pressure
    • low body temperature
    • Gastriontentinal problems: weak and loses ability funtion
    • Bone Problems: osteroporosis
  10. Bumiia Nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
  11. Binge eating
    eating a large amount of food in a short period of time
  12. Purging
    • an attempt to rid the body of unwanted food by: vomiting
    • laxatives
    • fasting for days
    • excessive exercise
  13. Bulimea Nervosa Symptoms
    • recurrent episodes of binge eating
    • recurrent inappropriate behavior to compensate for bine eating (vomiting, laxatives diuretics,fasting,exercise).
    • Binge eating twice a week
    • negative body image
  14. Bulimea Nervosa Health risk
    • electrolyte imbalance: caused by dehydration and loss of sodium and potassium ions from vomiting
    • Imbalance from dehydration
    • gastrointestinal problems
    • dental probems: tooth decay
    • calluses back of hands
    • swelling cheeck or jaw
  15. Disordered Eating
    • is comprised of a variety of unhealthy behaviors including
    • none of these last long enough to cause the person serious illness,but can progress to an eating disorder
    • bine eating
    • chronic overeatign
    • chronic dieting
  16. Binge Eating Disorder symptoms
    • often overwight
    • lack control during binging
    • choatic eationg
    • negative self esteem
    • often associated with depression
  17. Binge Eating health risk
    • increased risk of overweight or obesity
    • food eaten are high in fat and sugar
    • stress psychological effects
  18. Chronic Dieting Symptoms
    • preoccupation with food
    • strict dieting
    • excessive exercise
    • loss of concentration
    • increased ctiticism
  19. Chronic Dieting Health risks
    • poor nutrient and energy intakes
    • decreased claoric
    • decreased energy expenditure
    • decreased excersie
    • increased risk of psychiatric eating disorder
  20. Female Athlete Triad
    • serious medical syndrome frequently seen in femal ahtletes
    • disordered eating
    • mentrual dysfuntion
    • osteroporosis
    • Seen in sports, leand bodies , dance,skating ,diving,gymnastic, etc
  21. Treatment for eating disorder
    • patient
    • physician
    • nutritional councelors
    • psyhiactric counselors
    • nutritional rehabilatation
    • psychosoial intervention
    • medications
  22. Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa
    • restore to ahealthy weight
    • treat compications
    • encourage healthful behaviors
    • correct dysfuntional feelings toward the eating disorder
    • enlisst the help of family and freinds
  23. Treatment for Bulemia Nervosa
    • indentify and modify the events that trigger binging and purging behaviors
    • Monitor and later thought patterns related to food and body image
    • include family and friends to support the patient
  24. Preventing Eating Disorders
    • Reducing weight related crticism of children and young adults
    • identifying unrealistic body images in the media
    • participation in physical activity and sports
    • modeling a healthy diet by parents
  25. Physical Activity
    any muscle movement that increases energy expenditure
  26. Leisure time physical Activity
    any activity related to aperson occupation
  27. Recreational
  28. Excersise
    purposeful, planned.structured, physical activity
  29. The four Components of Fitness (Flexebility)
    • capacity of joints to move through a full range of motion
    • stretching excersies yoga
  30. The Four components of fitness ( Strenght)
    • the ability of muscles to work against resistance
    • weight lifting
  31. the four components of fitness (Msuculoskeletal Fitness and Endurance)
    • ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted
    • weight lifting,fewer and high repetitions
  32. The Four Components of Fitness (cardiosrespiratory Fitness)
    • the ability of the CV system and lungs to sustain effort over time
    • arobic type acivites such as walking,running,sweimming,cross country
  33. The Four Components of Fitness (body Composition)
    • amount of bone, muscle and fat tisssue in the body
    • arobic exercise and resistance training
  34. Physical Fitness
    • state of being created by the interaction between nutrition and physical activity
    • Ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness,without undue fatige, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time persuits and meet unforeseen emergencies
  35. Regular physical activity reduces the risk of:
    • heart diseae, stroke ,high blood pressure: by increase of HDL and decrease of TG , limits ahterosclerosis, strength of hear maintain blood pressure
    • Obesity
    • Type 2 diabetes: by enchancing the action of insulin, uptake of glucosn from the blood , controls, delays diabetes
    • Osteroporosis: strength bones and encahnces muscular strenght and flexibility
    • May reduce colon cancer: enchances gastric motlity
  36. Despite the clear benefits of regular physical Activity
    • more than half of all US do not sufficent physical activity
    • 26% of US adults admit to doin no leisure time
    • less than 30% of high school student participate Physical Act
  37. A sound physical fitness program
    • meets your personal goals
    • is fun
    • inlcudes variety and consistency
    • appropriatly overloads the body
    • includes a warm-up- and cool down periods
  38. Overload principle
    • additional physical demands on the body to improve fitness
    • too much physical act is not recommended
  39. FIT Principle Recap
    • determin appropriat overload
    • refers to the numver of activity sessions per week
    • intensiyt refers to how difficult the activity is to perform
    • time refers to how long each activity session lasts
  40. FIT Principle (Frequency )
    the frequency of physical activity varies with fitness goals
  41. FIT Principle (Intensity)
    determining proper intensity may be based on maximal heart rate
  42. Fit Principle (time of Activity)
    wether the total activity time is an accumulation of activities or completed all at once
  43. Adenosine riphosphate (ATP)
    • the common currency of energy for vitually all cells in the body
    • ATP must be continoulsy generated
    • muscle store only enough ATP for activity 1-3 seconds
  44. Other sources of energy after ATP depletion
    • creatine phosphate: enough energy for 3 to 15 secs of maximal effort
    • activities lasting 30 sec to 2 minu we canno generate enough ATP from the breakdown of CP to fully support
    • carbohydrate and fat to keep supporting activities
  45. Body energy needs
    • higher for athletes
    • different for males and females
    • body size
    • type of physical activity
  46. Recommended diet for body energy needs
    • at least 55% from cabohydrates
    • 15-25% kcal from fat
    • 12-20% kcal from protein
  47. Heat Exhaustion
    • occur when casues loss of body fluids and then depletion of blood volume
    • sweating inefficient at 75% humidity or greater
    • result = rapid fatique
  48. Heat stroke
    • occurs if the bodys temperature regulation merchanism fail.
    • bodys cor above 104F
    • hot, humid, environ
    • symptoms rapid pulse, hot, dry skin, hogh body temp, weak
  49. Sport drinks contents
    • water,glucose and electrolytes
    • use after 60 mins of act
  50. Sports anemia
    • increases the amount of water (plasma) in our blood without an increase in the amount of hemoglobin
    • Not a true anemia but a dilutio effect
  51. Female Athlet Triad syndromes
    • eating disorders, osteroporosis, and amenorrhea
    • nutritional inadequancies
    • irregularities in the menstrual cylce
    • hormonal disturbance
    • loss of bone mass
  52. Ergonomic Aids
    • substances used to improve exercise and athletic performance
    • not effective
    • reliable research and accurate information hard to find
    • used to increase muscle and strenght
  53. Anabolic Steriods
    • effective in muscle size and strenght, power,and speed.
    • illegal
    • side effets: stunt growht, liver,disfuntion,heart , blood pressure, reproductive, sleep,growth of breast tissue,ance baldness, roid rage
  54. DHEA (dehydropiandrosterone) and Androstenedione
    • precursor of testosterone, claim that taking them will increase testost levels and muscle strenght
    • studies found No incrase in testosterone increase in heart disease in men
  55. GHB (gamma-hydroxybutryic acid)
    • promoted as alternative to anabolic steriods
    • sold on the blakc market never approved
    • side effects- dizziness,tremors, vomiting ,but others sizures , and death
  56. Creatine ( or creatine Phosphate)
    • found in meat, fish and stored in our muscles
    • more CP is avialable to replenish ATP
    • perform in hsort-term,explosive activities
    • side effects: dehydration,muscle cramps, GI disturbances,
  57. Caffeine
    • stimulant makes us feel more alert and energetic decrease fatique
    • increase use of fat as fuel spares glycogen
    • side effects: increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, dizziness, insomnia, HA and GI distress
  58. Ephedrine ( ephedra,chines epherdra and mahuang)
    • Strong stimulant
    • marketed as a weight loss supplement and energy enchancer
    • does not appear to enchance performance,but with caffein and ephedra have shown to prolong
    • side effects: HA,irregular heart rat , incrase blood pressure, and 17 deaths have been attribtued to its use
    • banned in the US
  59. Carnitine
    • helps shuttle fatty acids into the mitochondria to be used for energy
    • marketed as fat burner
    • do not support these claimsand excersie does not appear to reduce the amounts
    • no significant side effects
  60. Chromium
    • trace mineral enchaces insulins action of increase the transport of AA into the cell
    • enchance the uptake ofAA into cells and increase muslce growth and strenght
    • marketed as a fat burner b/c
    • studies do not support any menefit on muscle mass, etc
  61. Ribose
    • 5 carbon sugar ctitical to production of ATP
    • imrpove athletic performance by incrase of work output and faster recovery time
    • showen to improve exercise tolerance in pts with heart disease but there are no publishe studies on athleteic
  62. Arguments for supplements
    • correct overt deficiencies
    • improve nutrition status
    • reduce disease risks
    • support increased nutrient needs
    • improve the body defenses
  63. Arguments against supplements
    • toxicity
    • life threatening misinformation
    • uknown needs
    • false sense of security
    • other invalid reasons
  64. Bioavailability
    the rate at and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used
  65. Antagonistic actions
    a competing fator that counteracts the action of another factor when a drug displaces a vitamin from its site of action the drug renders the vitamin ineffective and thus acts as a vitamin antagonist
  66. FDA definition of Dietary Sipplement
    a product taken by mouth that contains dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet
  67. Dietary ingredients may include
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • herbs
    • botanicals
    • amino acids
    • enxymes
    • other plant derived substances
    • concentrates or extracts
    • tissues from animal organs or glands
  68. Selection of supplements form
    • pills
    • capsules
    • liquids
    • powders
  69. Health and education Act of 1994
    • classified supplements as foods
    • restricted FDA regulation
    • limited resources available
    • buyer beware
    • food additives and drugs must be demonstrated to FDAs satisfaction before they are marketed
  70. How are they dietary supplements regulated
    • FDA does not test
    • supplement companies do not have to provide the FDA unless not sold in US prior to 1994
    • no federal guidelines
    • no rules to limit serving or amount
    • once marketed FDA has to prove it unsafe before it can be removed
  71. how can the consumer protect themselves from faudulent or dangerous supplements
    • look for U.S.P
    • consider buying recognized brands
    • do not assume that the word natural means safe
  72. Dietary supplement verification Program
    • USP has tested and verified
    • sets official standards for dietary supplements
    • ingredients
    • product
    • manufactureing process
    • voluntary
  73. Quality tes
    • contains the ingredients stated on the label
    • has declared amount of ingredients
    • will disintegrate or dissolve effectively to release nutrients fro absorption into your body
    • has been screened for harmful cintaminants such as pesticideds bacteria and heavy metals
    • has been manufactured using safe sanitary and well controlled procedures
  74. USP
    does not determin if dietary supplements are good or bad for you
  75. Herbal and specialty supplements
    1/3 of older adults use herbal or specialty supplements
  76. Green light herbal supplements
    • generally safe for most people
    • research has found it is beneficial
    • still important to discuss the treatment with your doctor, befor e starting supplementation
  77. Yellow ligh supplements
    • use product with caution
    • may be of benefit bit taht is aslo carries risk
    • given a yellow if the research is weak or insufficient to determin benefit
  78. Red light supplements
    • do not use this
    • research show its unsafe
  79. Effectiveness and safety of herbal products
    • consistency of herbal ingredients
    • may vary in composition
    • dosage on the label may not provide the amount of active ingredietns found to be effective
    • contamination of herval products
  80. ginger (green )
    may alleviate nausea associated with pregnancy, motion, sickness, chemotherapy
  81. Garlic ( green)
    may lower LDL cholesterol may lower tour risk of certain types of cancer
  82. Saw palmetto (green)
    may improve the symtpoms associated with enlarged prostate
  83. Ginseng (green)
    • may improve mental performance.
    • should not be taken if you have HTN. may increase effect of other medications such as anti caugulants
  84. Valerian (green)
    beneficaial for insomnia and anxiety
  85. Echinacea (Yellow)
    may boost the immune system especially to help fight colds and upper respiratory tract infections. lack of evidence gives this a yellow
  86. Ginkgo biloba(yellow)
    may slow the loss of cognitive function associated with age such as absentmindedness and confusion.
  87. St.Johns Wort
    • may be effective in treating mild moderate depression
    • does not mix well with other medicatins
  88. Kava (red )
    • initially a treatment for stress and anxiety
    • warning serious liver problems
  89. Ephedra (ma-haung)
    • used for weight loss frequently combined with caffeine to enchance athletic performance
    • Warning: life threatening , heart attacks, seizures and strokes
  90. (Green) weight loss herbs
    • relatively safe but unlikely to cause weight loss
    • chitosan
    • chromium
    • guar gum
  91. (Yellow) green-tea extract
    may contain increase cffeine
  92. (yellow) hoodia
    only one small study exist and that was spopnsered by a supplement manufacture
  93. (Red) Weight loss herbs
    • all contain some form of ephedra
    • bitter orange
    • country mallow
    • ephedra
    • risks hogh BP, HR irregularities ,strokes death excessiveCNS and CV
  94. Safety issues of herbal products
    • most common side effects diarrhea, nausea and vomiting
    • most if not all side effects occur when taken too long, high dose and with other medicine that there is an interaction
  95. Guidelines for incorporating herbal products into a health care regime
    • duscuss with M>D or other healt professional
    • use only single
    • do not combinations of herbs
    • consider interactions
    • read label
    • do not assume herbal products are safe
    • do not use for long periods
    • start with low dosage
    • be alert
  96. Phytochemicals
    • naturally occuring plant chemicals
    • not considered nutrients
    • epidemiologic stidues show reduce risk of cardiovascular disease,cancer,diabetes,alzhemiers, cataracts, age
  97. Whath do phytochemicals have
    • hace antioxidants properties that neutralize free radicals
    • antioxidant rich food reduce the risk of disease of aging
  98. Funtion s of phytochemicals
    • reduce inflammation
    • enchance enzyme activity
    • protect against cancer slow growth
    • protect against infections in immune functions
    • reduce cardiovascular disease(blood lipids,pressure, clotting
  99. Pyhtochemicals synergistic effect
    • interact with each other in the body to produce a synergistic effect
    • interact with micronutrients, vitamins, and minerals
    • phytochemicals can act in different ways under different circumstances in the body
  100. Supplements phytochemicals
    • protective in low doses commonly provided by foods but may have different effects as supplements
    • avoid phytochemicals supplements
    • consume plant based diet
  101. Funtional Foods
    • generally taken to mean foods, fortified foods, and enchanced food products that may benefit health beyond the effects of essential nutrients they contain
    • Provide health benefist include fortified, enriched or enchanced food
    • may contain natural phytochemicals and helpful bacteria
  102. How are food Funtional
    • taking out potentially harmfull components
    • incrasing the amount of nutrientsand beneficial non nutrients
    • using beneficial substance in food production or products
  103. Are funtional foods safe?
    • FDA has no official definition or regulatory category
    • regulated in the same way as conventional foods
    • funcitonal ingredient added to a food must be generally recongized as safe
  104. Are funtional Foods effective?
    • claims of health benefits
    • designger yogurts
    • probitics beneficial bacterial
    • eggs with omega 3 vitamin e and luteien
    • dark chocolate with flavonoids
    • calorie burning beverages
  105. Enviga
    • calorie burning beverage
    • claim increases metabolic rate
    • contaings EGCG aphytochemical that occurs in green tea
    • EGCG main ingredient is caffeine
    • 3 cans of Enviga = 300mg caffeine which is a typicla upper limit of caffein about the same of 9 cans of coke