child dev. ch9-11

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child dev. ch9-11
2012-03-24 20:16:52

chapter 9-11
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  1. From Infancy to Early Childhood Physical Growth and Development
    • Growt at a slower rate
    • Children get more lean, stable, long, and strong
    • No longer as awkward and uncoordinated
    • Motor skills refine (large-small)
  2. Large Motor Development
    • Morge agile and able to move
    • Need daily activity play
    • Movements more coordinated
    • Increased balance and control
    • System of action: combination of physical movements (run, start, jump)
  3. Small Motor Development
    • More refined eye-hand coordination
    • Manipulate small items, "tools"
    • Self help skills
  4. Artistic Development (Stages)
    • Scribble (abstract) to
    • Shape with representation to
    • Design which is more purposeful to
    • Pictorial (by age 5 - concrete objects)
  5. Artistic Development
    • Art as a way to express emotion
    • Art as a window to the child
    • Shift from abstract to representational
    • Process vs Product
  6. Diety Needs (Changes)
    • Cycles of eating and not eating as much
    • Need less calories
    • Healthy habits established (healthy portion and choices, food groups, daily exercise)
    • Poor health and malnutrition can negatively affect cognitive ability
  7. Sleep Needs (Changes)
    • Cycle between need and not needing as much sleep
    • Eventually grows out of naps (longer sleep nights, by age 5 - 11 hours)
    • Moving from dependence to independence
    • Can be scary, but transitional objects can help.
    • Establish a bed time routine
    • Reach a deeper state of sleep
  8. Nightmares
    • Frightening dreams brought on by staying up too late
    • Caused by eating close to bed time, watching TV before bed (overstimulation), watching scary shows, stories, news.
  9. Night Terrors
    • Possibly due to immature development of the brain's motor control system
    • Child wakes up suddenly, screaming, crying, breathing radidly
    • Will not remember the incident
    • Nightmares are worse, but night terrors look worse.
  10. Oral Health
    • Age 3 - primary teeth are in place. Permanent teeth at age 6.
    • Tooth decay is less common today but still an issue for underpriveleged populations
    • Tooth decay - lack of dental care, interferes with eating/sleeping routines, relates to behavior problems.
  11. Globally, over half of deaths in young children under age 5 are due to:
    • Preventable diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria
    • Under nutrition plays a huge role
  12. In the United States, childhood death is caused by:
    • Injury, rather than illness.
    • Early chilhood accidents range from car accidents to preventable accidents in the home
    • Most occur in the home (fires, drowing, suffocation, poisoning, falls)
  13. Preoperational Child
    • Children are not yet able to engage in organized, formal, and logical thinking operations, but do developic symbolic function
    • Quicker and more effective thinking
    • Less reliance on senorimotor learning
  14. Symbolic Function
    • Directly related to learning language
    • Preschoolers ability to represent actions symbolically (words, numbers, images)
    • Language allows children to think beyond present/future/past
    • Pretend Play (deferred imitation)
    • Language can be used to consider many possibilities at the same time
  15. Immature aspect of preoperational child:
    • centration: tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
    • Don't see big picture
    • Socailly = egocentrism -> sociocentrism
    • Physical properties of objects = conservation
  16. Information Processing Approach
    How Do We Make a Memory?
    • Sensory memory: sensory input "inbox"
    • Encoding: giving information a "code" or "label" (ex. new family member)
    • Storage: storing memory for later
    • Retrieval: remembering information that was stored in working/long-term memory
  17. Storage Memory
    • Storing your memory away to remember it later (two places:)
    • Working memory: short term, still being worked on/thought about
    • Long-Term Memory: unlimited capacity, holds infor for "long time"
  18. Retrieval Memory
    • Remembering information that was stored away in either working or long-term memory is retrieved
    • Recognition: being able to identify something you have come across before (senses)
    • Recall: being able to tell you what is remembered (language)
  19. Preschool children do better with what type of memory:
    • Recognition
    • Hands on learning
    • Language
  20. Types of Early Memories
    • Generic Memory
    • Episodic Memory
    • Autobiographical Memory
  21. Generic Memory
    • Family routines that guide behavior
    • Helps a child know what to expect and how to act, predictability
  22. Episodic Memory
    • Memories that are associated with a particular time, place, or circumstance
    • Temporary memories
    • If not repeated, will be forgotten
  23. Autobiographical Memory
    • Episodic memory that has a special, personal meaning to the child
    • Ages 3-4
    • Role of the relationship and emotions
  24. Influences on Memory Retention
    • Uniqueness of the event
    • Active participation
    • Talking about past events
    • Social interaction model - making memories together
  25. Language Development & Memory
    • Ability to remember develops together with the ability to talk about past experiences
    • Language helps reinforce memory
    • Experiences gives us more to talk about
  26. Grammar and Syntax
    • The way that words and phrases are put together in order to form sentences
    • Doubles each month
    • Plurals and possessive nouns
    • Past tense (-ed)
    • Ask/answer complex questions
    • Increase vocabulary
  27. Vocabulary Explosion & Expressive/Receptive/Fast Mapping
    • Age 3: know 1,000 words
    • Age 6: can speak 2,600 words, understand more than 20,000
    • Expressive: vocabulary of what is spoken
    • Receptive: vocabulary of what is understood
    • Fast Mapping: the ability to associate words with their meaning after hearing it only once or twice
  28. Development of skills that children will need in order to read:
    • Symbols have meaning
    • Phonemic awareness: letters make sounds
    • Sounds/letters can be grouped together to make words
  29. How small motor skills help literacy
    • recognize the value of words to motivate children to write
    • Representative artwork
  30. Child centered Preschool
    • Developmental approach
    • Child initiated activities
    • Ample amounts of uninterruped indoor/outdoor play
    • Hands on curriculum towards all domains of development
    • Teacher is a facilitator (scaffolding)
  31. Adult Center Preschool
    • Academic approach
    • Highly structured learning times
    • Focus on academics in preparation for future schooling
    • Teacher is a director
  32. Reggio child-centered preschool programs
    • Founder (Malaguzzi) was a social-constructionist who envisioned an "education based on relationships"
    • Follow the child's lead into investigations
    • The process is most important
  33. Montesorri child-centered preschool programs
    • Founder Maria Montessori
    • Originally focused on educating children with disabilities and helping them learn useful skills and work with tools
    • Important for children to have time to work at their own pace and on individual tasks
  34. Compensatory Preschool Program (HeadStart)
    • Funded federally 1965
    • A "whole-child" approach - dental, medical, mental health, social services, and a hot meal a day
    • Teacher and program quality improvement
    • Improves school readiness
    • Helps families in poverty
  35. Kindergarten
    • Not required in all states, but most families choose to enroll
    • Preparation a child receives BEFORE kindergarten is MOST important
    • Emotional and social: important factors in readiness and predict school success
    • Adjustment will depend on child's age, gender, temperament, environment
  36. Erikson: Initiative vs Guilt
    • Ages 3-6
    • Actions independently
    • May feel bad or "guilty" - need approval
    • Challenge - develop a willingness to do or try new things, not let guild or fear of punishment stop them
  37. Erikson's thoery suggest that:
    • A healthy level of independence from others must be attained
    • Being restricted, overprotected and/or dependent on others could have negative consequences on child's development
    • Varies in cultures
  38. Role of Culture
    Collectivistic orientation:
    • Promotes Interdependence
    • Encourage being humble, listening to those with authority, and appropriate behavior
    • Ex. the child who misbehaves - "malcreada"
  39. Role of Culture
    Individualistic Orientation:
    • Emphasizes personal indentity
    • Being an individual, self-expression and self-esteem
    • Ex. the child who misbehaves - "shame on you"
  40. Developing Self-Concept
    • Observable behaviors, external characteristics, family members
    • Self-definitions: single representations, age 3-4, one dimensional, non related statements
    • Representational mappings: age 5/6, makes "logical connections between aspects of onself", connections are "all or nothing"
  41. Gender Identity & Gender Roles/Typing
    • Understanding that one is a boy or a girl and what that means.
    • Gender roles: behavior that a culture defines as appropriate for males and females
    • Gender Typing: process of being socialized to learn appropriate gender roles
  42. Kohlberg's theory states children's understanding of gender constancy progress through 3 stages:
    • Gender Identiy/Labeing: Age 2-3. awareness of your own gender and gender of others
    • Gender stability: Preschool. understanding that your gender will not change over time (misjudge by appearances, stereoptypes)
    • Gender consistency: Preschool/School Age. gender does not change despite changes in appearance or activities
  43. Gender-Schema Theory
    • Children socialize themselves
    • Children develop a schema about gender based on thier particular culture (how they dress/what they do)
  44. Play contributes to which domains of development:
    Physical, Cognitive, Psychosocial
  45. Physical benefits of play
    • Stimulates senses - builds brain connections
    • Exercise their muscles (large and small motor skills)
    • Gain physical skill mastering
  46. Cognitive benefits of play
    • Decision making and problem-solving skills
    • Practical application of math and science concepts
    • Language development
  47. Psychosocial benefits of play
    • Cooperating with others
    • Negotiating and conflict resolution skills
    • Learn to abide by rules
    • Self-regulation
    • Practice to prepare for adult roles
    • Verbal Skill development
  48. Different Types of Play (6)
    • Unoccupied behavior: not ready yet, not interested
    • Onlooker play: watching others, shy, learning from others
    • Solitary Independent play: plays alone, not interested in others, skill building
    • Parallel play: independent play among others, use similar materials in own ways
    • Associate play: children play together, talk and share materials
    • Cooperative play: children work together for a common goal, take different roles
  49. Difficulties in Parenting
    • Children trying to learn to regulate emotions
    • Socialization not always a good thing - (pick up bad habits)
    • Children become aware of their social power (aggression)
    • Fearfulness can be intense (creatures/separations)
  50. Baumrind's 3 parenting styles:
    • Authoritarian
    • Permissive
    • Authoritative
    • Uninvolved
  51. Authoritarian parenting
    • Value control and obedience
    • Children strictly controlled - take away priveleges, spankings, threats
    • Less warm and more detached
    • Children tend to be disconnected, withdrawn, and distrusful
  52. Permissive parenting
    • Value self expression and self regulation
    • Make few demands, little guidance, and give a lot of freedom
    • Warm, non-controlling
    • Children may be immature, insecure, and anxious
  53. Authoritative parenting
    • Parents value individuality along with good behavior.
    • Clear, consistent limits given with love
    • Good communication
    • Respect children's abilities and individuality
    • Children self-reliant, self controlled and content
  54. Uninvolved parenting (added by Maccoby and Martin)
    • Parents focus on their own needs, not of their children.
    • Stressed or dealing with depression
    • Children often insecure and can develop behavioral problems.