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What is a urachal cyst?
Cyst on the fetal urachus
* which is the medial umbilical ligament connecting the bladder to the umbilicus
What is transitional cell carcinoma? TCC
Most common bladder CA (focal wall thickening)
What is the resistive index formula?
RI = peak systolic frequency - end diastolic frequency/ peak systolic frequency
What would the ultrasound findings be for pyelonephritis? in end stage renal disease
The kidney would appear as a small hyperechoic kidney
Can pyelonephritis lead to end-stage renal disease?
Yes....chronic pyelonephritis can
What is pyonephrosis?
Purulent material in the collecting system (Pus)
Hyperechoic debris in dilated renal collecting system
Name the six HYPERECHOIC renal masses?
What is the definition of acute renal failure? (ARF)
* reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
*resulting in azotemia
*increase in nitrogen waste
What are the 4 main mechanisms of ARF?
1) Prerenal failure
2) Hypovolemia - decreased volumes of blood
3) cardiac failure
4) renal artery stenosis
What is acute tubular necrosis?
*toxic and ischemic insults
*lead to tubular epithelial-cell damage
*most common cause of medical renal disease or ARF, and implanted kidney rejection
What is the most common cause of acute intrinsic renal failure?
Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
What do sonographers look for in ARF? (acute renal failure)
* Postrenal failure (hydronephrosis)
* renal obstruction
* abnormal resistive index
What happens to the resistance index of the renal artery waveform with a renal vein thrombosis?
Becomes very High-resistance
(normally low resistance)
What are 2 different congenital anomolies of the kidneys ---harmless--- and where are they?
Dromedary hump - Lt Kidney
Junctional parenchymal defect
*hyperechoic - anterior aspect of the upper pole
In the hilum of the kidney what is anterior and what is posterior?
Vein exits anteriorly
Artery enters in the middle
Ureter exits posteriorly
What are some common occurances with a duplex kidney?
*upper pole ureter inserts into an ectopic location in bladder
*causing a ureterocele
*causing hydroureter and hydronephrosis of the upper collecting system
A hypernephroma is a solid renal mass....What is it also known as?
Transitional cell carcinoma
What is the most common cause of acute renal failure?
Acute tubular necrosis
What causes sloughing papilla in the urine?
*Ischemia of the medullary pyramids