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Membrane that surrounds & protects the heart
The two parts of the pericardium are...
Fibrous Pericardium - superficial layer
Inelastic dense ireegular connective tissue that anchors the heart to the mediastinum
Serous Pericardium - double layer around the heart
Lubricating fluid in pericardial cavity between the parietal & visceral layer reducing friction between them
What are the three layers of the heart wall. (from external to internal)
Epicardium (visceral layer of the serous pericardium)
Describe the myocardium
Cardiac muscle tissue making up 95% of heart
Responsible for pumping action
Striated like skeletal muscle but involuntary like smooth muscle
Swirls diagonally around heart in bundles
Describe the endocardium
Thin layer of endothelium overlying thin layer of connective tissue
Lines chambers & valves of heart
Continuous with endothelial lining of large blood vessels attached to heart
What are Sulci (Sulcus, singular)
Grooves containing coronary blood vessels & fat
Each marks boundary between two chambers of the heart
The right atrium receives blood where?
Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
Foreamen Ovale is...
Opening in interatrial septum of fetal heart that normally closes after birth
Fossa Ovalis – Remnant of foramen ovale
Valve from where blood passes from right atrium to right ventricle
Tricuspid Valve (Right Atrioventricular Valve)
The right ventricle receives _________ blood from the right atrium ventricle
A partition that separates the right & left ventricles
Raised bundles of cardiac muscle fibers that look like ridges
On inner surface of right & left ventricles
Valve which blood passes from left atrium to left ventricle
Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve aka Left Atrioventricular Valve
What is the flow of blood thru the heart?
Inferior / Superior Vena Cava & Coronary Sinus
Tricuspid Valve (Right Atriaventricular Valve)
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Right & Left Pulmonary Artery
Bicuspid Valve (Mitral Valve)
Aortic Semilunar Valve (Aortic Valve)
Systemic Circulation is...
Blood flow from aorta to body via systemic arteries & returns via systemic veins
Pulmonary Circulation is...
Blood flow from heart to pulmonary arties to lungs returning to heart via pulmonary veins
Coronary aka Cardiac Circulation is...
Blood flow that supplies oxygen to myocardium
Cardiac muscle tissue continously contract & relax thus need oxygen & nutrients
Parts of body receiving blood from more than one artery
Connection of separate parts so they can intercommunicate
Alternative routes of blood that reach an organ or tissue
: Heart muscle can still get enough oxygen if a coronary artery is partially blocked
Large vascular sinus in corconary sulcus where deoxygenated blood from myocardium drains and then enters the right the right atrium
Restriction to blood supply usually due to blood vessel factors
Elevated resting heart rate
Resting heart rate is low (under 50 beats per minute)
Body has a cooled low core temperature
Metabolism slows reducing oxygen needs in tissues
Heart & brain can candle short periods
Used during surgery for heart abnormalities
Mediastinum location is...
Sternum to vertebral column
First rib to diaphragm
Human Heart Questions