The Heart

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The Heart
2012-03-25 18:56:18
Human Heart Questions

The Heart
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  1. Membrane that surrounds & protects the heart
  2. The two parts of the pericardium are...
    • Fibrous Pericardium - superficial layer
    • Inelastic dense ireegular connective tissue that anchors the heart to the mediastinum

    Serous Pericardium - double layer around the heart
  3. Pericardial Fluid
    Lubricating fluid in pericardial cavity between the parietal & visceral layer reducing friction between them
  4. What are the three layers of the heart wall. (from external to internal)
    • Epicardium (visceral layer of the serous pericardium)
    • Myocardium
    • Endocardium
  5. Describe the myocardium
    • Cardiac muscle tissue making up 95% of heart
    • Responsible for pumping action
    • Striated like skeletal muscle but involuntary like smooth muscle
    • Swirls diagonally around heart in bundles
  6. Describe the endocardium
    • Thin layer of endothelium overlying thin layer of connective tissue
    • Lines chambers & valves of heart
    • Continuous with endothelial lining of large blood vessels attached to heart
  7. What are Sulci (Sulcus, singular)
    • Grooves containing coronary blood vessels & fat
    • Each marks boundary between two chambers of the heart
  8. The right atrium receives blood where?
    • Superior Vena Cava
    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Coronary Sinus
  9. Foreamen Ovale is...
    Opening in interatrial septum of fetal heart that normally closes after birth

    Fossa Ovalis – Remnant of foramen ovale
  10. Valve from where blood passes from right atrium to right ventricle
    Tricuspid Valve (Right Atrioventricular Valve)
  11. The right ventricle receives _________ blood from the right atrium ventricle
  12. A partition that separates the right & left ventricles
  13. Trabeculae Carneae
    • Raised bundles of cardiac muscle fibers that look like ridges
    • On inner surface of right & left ventricles
  14. Valve which blood passes from left atrium to left ventricle
    Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve aka Left Atrioventricular Valve
  15. What is the flow of blood thru the heart?
    • Inferior / Superior Vena Cava & Coronary Sinus
    • Right Atrium
    • Tricuspid Valve (Right Atriaventricular Valve)
    • Right Ventricle
    • Pulmonary semilunar valve
    • Pulmonary Trunk
    • Right & Left Pulmonary Artery
    • ---------------------LUNGS (oxygenated)
    • Pulmonary Vein
    • Left Atrium
    • Bicuspid Valve (Mitral Valve)
    • Left Ventricle
    • Aortic Semilunar Valve (Aortic Valve)
    • Aorta
  16. Systemic Circulation is...
    Blood flow from aorta to body via systemic arteries & returns via systemic veins
  17. Pulmonary Circulation is...
    Blood flow from heart to pulmonary arties to lungs returning to heart via pulmonary veins
  18. Coronary aka Cardiac Circulation is...
    • Blood flow that supplies oxygen to myocardium
    • Cardiac muscle tissue continously contract & relax thus need oxygen & nutrients
  19. Anastomoses
    • Parts of body receiving blood from more than one artery
    • Connection of separate parts so they can intercommunicate
    • Example: Moycardium
  20. Collateral Circuits
    • Alternative routes of blood that reach an organ or tissue
    • Example: Heart muscle can still get enough oxygen if a coronary artery is partially blocked
  21. Coronary Sinus
    Large vascular sinus in corconary sulcus where deoxygenated blood from myocardium drains and then enters the right the right atrium
  22. Ischemia
    Restriction to blood supply usually due to blood vessel factors
  23. Elevated resting heart rate
  24. Resting heart rate is low (under 50 beats per minute)
  25. Hypothermia
    • Body has a cooled low core temperature
    • Metabolism slows reducing oxygen needs in tissues
    • Heart & brain can candle short periods
    • Used during surgery for heart abnormalities
  26. Mediastinum location is...
    • Sternum to vertebral column
    • First rib to diaphragm