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Who was Napoleon?
- Very strong and favored general..great organization and leadership skills
- Born in Corsica
First big victory was in 1793 at Port of Toulon
Port of Toulon?
Napoleon seized key fortifications around the city..after the victory he was promoted to Captain at age 24
The Italian Campaign
The directory believed Napoleon was a threat to form a dictatorship, so they sent him on a unfavorable mission vs military's twice his size, but he kept winning battles
What happened in 1799?
Napoleon overthrows the Directory, which ends the French Revolution
- Written in a very easy to understand launguage.
- -France's new legal code
- -Compromise between conservative and liberal legal philsophies
- -All citizens are considers equal before the law
Battle of Trafalsar
The British defeat France's and Spain's navies..causing economic warfare
British- Order-In-Council= anyone that trades with France, they will seize your ship. Going to a French port, then you will have to go through Britains blockade, and buy a license
France- Continental System= if a ship enters a French port and has British goods or bought one of those British license, they can seize your ship and goods
Battle at Water Loo
Napoleon's last big battle and lost to the Bristish and Prussian armies
Why was Britain the main focus of the Industrial Revolution?
- 1. Good infrastructure (canals, roads, growing merchant fleet)
- 2. Large deposit of coal (steam power)
- 3. Wealthy land owners with resources for investment
- 4. Has a good banking system
- 1. Cotton, bc they got cotton very cheap from souther US
- 2. Technology breakthrough- Flying Shuttle was invented, which allowed weavers to double their output...which leads to the invention of the Jenny, that helped the spinners to double their output too
- 3. Factory- allowed to produce much more for cheaper, bc of the the machines and their cheap pay to less workers.
Group that tried to stop the industrial revolution all in attempt to reserve the gill system
Negatives of Factories
- 1. Owners start relying on managers to make sure the job is done correctly
- 2. Dirty
- 3. Low pay
- 4. Long hours
- 5. Depression becomes more frequent
- 6. Wage distribution becomes very uneven
Positives of Factories
- 1. Cheap goods
- 2. Supply keeps up with demand
- 3. Really good investment opportunties
- 4. Child Labor Laws (workday is regulated)
- 5. Population Increases
What is the goal of Congress of Vienna?
- What to do with Europe?
- How do you erase the French Revolutions and Napoleon?
- Try to get Europe back to how it was in 1789 and make sure the people of Europe wont start another Revolution
Prime Minister of Austria, declared that the status quo must be maintained, and if it was messed up then the big powers of Europe will come to defend it
- Advocated that the persons' right to pursue happiness must be protected.
- Every person is equal before the law
- Best economic system was captialism
- Limits on the power of the rulers
- Government should change slowly
- Tradition protected your freedom
- Established social oders prevented chaos and anarchy
- Human nature was overwhelming good, but some people were greedy.
- Believed in public ownership of factories
- Property owners should have title that property through their own labor
- Marx and Ingles is the main theory
People who spoke the same language and had the same culture should live in the same country.
Social Unrest (Revolustions of 1830)
- Police forces are created to decrease the crime rate..Great Britain is the first to establish one
- Great Britain also passes a law that forbids children to work in the factories
All men can vote, pay politicians, Secret ballot, annual elections...movement doesn't succed, but the idea is very influential
- Becomes the president of France
- Restores the monarchy
- Positions himself as emperor and takesthe title "Napoleon III"
- Makes Paris the showcase capital of the world
- Starts in 1853 when Russia attacks the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
- Russia starts to take over the ottoman empire, but Great Britain and France on Russia...leading Russia to give back the territory they took
- Prime minister and he builds up his army and starts going after Prussian rivals
- Starts a war with Denmark and brought in the 2 providence that speak German
- Accuses Austria of mismanaging the territory so now the SIX WEEKS WAR is on vs Austria..Prussia defeated them within 6 weeks
- Prussia goes to war with France, very quick victory by Prussia, which leads to another German speaking states to unify.....
- This leads to the new state of Germany
What is Cartels?
- National or international syndicats to regulate output and price in an industry
- Could be privately controlled or one or two men might control it
Originally created to help out in particular trades...they started getting more involved with politics and began to figure out rather than giving their money to canidadates, just give their money to their own candidate
The Labour Party?
- Displaces the Liberal Party
- Their Platform- 1. Public Housing. 2. Urban renewal (tearing down the slums) 3. British workers to have increased benefits (unemployment benefits, health insurance)
What is the Kulturekampf?
- Bismarck started it bc he was afraid the Roman Catholics will be tempted to disobey German law..so he had to weaken the Roman Catholic's influence on the German unification.
- Passed laws to regulate Catholic Schools, Priests' sermon could lead to a lawsuit
Selects a prime minister, elected a president, makes in mandatory for French men to go into their military and make people go to school
Population shift of Jewish families relocating to Western Europe or U.S.
Theodor Herzl- concludes that the best way for Jewish families to protect themselves is to simply get out of Europe
Who was in the Alliance System?
Britain, France, Austria, Germany, and Russia
Three Emperors' League (1873)
- Russia, Austria, and Germany
- Pledge that if any power is attacked, then they will come to each others' aid
Germany, Austria, Italy
France, Russia, and Britain in 1907
New Imperialism Technology?
- Firearms, steam power, electricity, telegraph
- Canals- Suez- Med. Sea with Red Sea...Panama- Atlantic with Pacific
Conquest of Africa
Whole continent of Africa was colonized by Emperial Powers, except for Ethopia and Liberia
Conquest of Asia
Spheres of influence- only one country could control trade there
U.S. introduces the Open Door Policy- China should be able to buy and sell to any country that they want to
Boxer Rebellion- group in China that wanted to get out all of foreign influence
Results of Western Domination
Imperialist argued: 1. Developed the world (economy, spread technology, investment for westerners) 2. Colonial rivalries- leads to WWI 3. White's Man Burden- bs they had superior technology, these colonies were necessary