Among various etrhnic groups the two most common blood types are ?
O and A
People with type A blood have isoantigens called ?
A antigens/ Bantibodies
Agranular Monocytes that develope into macrophage that develope outside of the blood stream are called?
Aclogging in an unbrocken blood vessel would be called?
T-cells have the CD8 proteins on their plasma membranes called_______ those that have the CD4 are called________?
Cytoxic, helper T-cells
Activated Bcells clone and differinciate into antibody secreting cells called_______and if they are going to be used for future protection aainst the same antigen they are called ______?
Plasma cells, memory cells
Most antobodies belong to which class of immunoglobulins?
Cells in the epidermis thought to function in sensation?
Nerve endings in the hypodermis that are sensitive to pressure are?
Lack of the enzyme tyrosinase results in an inability to produce?
Melanin is synthesized by lelanocytes from the amino acid?
the substance in the skin that protects us from UV light?
The substance in our skin that protects us from bacterial invasion and mechanical injury is?
Atmospheric pressure at sea level would be?
Which of the following contains the highest percentage of CO2?
The Haldane effect refers to the decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen when the pH decreases?
The Bohr efect refers to the decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen when pH decreases.
The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is associated with which a greater than normal volume of oxygen can be dissolved in blood using pressure it is a clinical application using?
the tidal volume is the volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in?
A single quiet breath
The residual volume is the amount of air remaining in the lungs after?
which of the following best describes the process of inspiration?
contraction of the diaphragm increases the depth of the thoracic cavity, as the size of the thoracic cavity increases intrpulmonic pressure decreases below the atmosphiric pressure and air comes in along the pressure gradient.
Most carbon dioxide is transported in blood by?
Carbonic acid is produced when?
CO2 combines with water
Dalton's law states?
in a mixture of gasses, each exerts its own pressure
compliance is affective primarily by the amount of elastic tissue in the lungs and the amount of?
Boyle's law states that at aconstant tempurature the volume of gas varies inversly with the pressure?
Most oxygen is transported in the blood by?
the Heme portion
Anatomical ead Space is do called because?
There is no exchange of gasse between thses spaces and the blood
which of the following events occurs first in inflammation?
The term "immunological surveillance" refers to identification and destruction of cells displaying tumors or antigens?
In MHC two antigens are located on the?
Antigen presenting cells
Antibodies are consisting of?
Heavy and light chains
The term "immunological tolerance" refers to?
Lack of reactivity to peptide fragments of one's own proteins
Antobodies are produced by?
B-lymphocytes that are form plasma cells
For every 100 leukocytes how many monocytes would you expect to see?
Major histocompatibility complex antigens are?
Proteins encoded by genes present in nucleated cells that must be matched for a successful tissue transplant
The normal number of Thrombocytes in circulation?
300,000 per mm cubed
Does 7.0 fall into the range for normal blood pH?
Carbamenohemoglobin (Hb-CO2) forms when?
23% of CO2 binds to the globin portion of hemoglobin for transport to the lungs
Leukocytes with a red/orange color might be refered to as?
Leukocytes with blue/black granules would be?
If you had a lab slip that said 70% neutrophils that would be?
within normal range
Eosinophils are often elevated in?
parasitice worm infection
The purpose for giving Rh immune globulin to women who have just delivered a child might be to?
block recognition of any fetal red cells by the mothers immune system
Type O is considered a theoretical universal donor?
because there are no A or B isoantigens on the red cells
The term after load refers to?
The pressure that must be overcome before semi lunar valves can open
If the heart rate is about 75 bpm each cardiac cycle takes?
Blood flow is defined as?
volume of blood flowing through a tissue in a given time period
Blood flows more slowly through?
Capilaries because they have a larger cross section area
Resting pulse is?
Between 70-80 bpm
Generally speaking we are going to say that the BP rises to?
120 in the systolic and drops to 80 in the diastolic
MABP (mean arterial blood pressure) is approximately?
One-third of the way between diastolic and systolic blood pressure
Bradycardia is less than about?
Tachycardia is over?
Sympathetic impulse does what?
Increase the heart rate
Stretching of walls of blood vessels and the atria
The dissolving of a blood clot
Which of the following would be true for a person with type B blood?
They could donate blood to a type AB (the universal recipient)
Which of the following could be true for a normal person with anti A antibodies?
Could be type B
15 grams per 100 mL would be the normal range for?
The initiation of the heart beat is the responsibility of the?
The Frank- Starling law of the heart states?
A greater force of contraction can occur if the heart muscle is stretched first
A substance that is a positive inotropic agent?
Diastasis occurs when?
The AV valves have opened but atrial systole has not yet occurred
Repolarization of cardic myo fibers occurs do to?
The opening of voltage- gated potassium ion (K+) channels
On an ECG or EKG depolarization the atria is represented by?
On the ECG repolarization of the ventricles is represented by?