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Henry turned the traditional relationship of patronage and nobles by:
by making it clear that patronage came as a result of loyal service, not in hope of it.
How many new earls did Henry VII create? (+ Give 2 examples of these earls). How does this compare with Edward IV?
- 3 earls. Lord Stanley to Earl of Derby. Sir Edward Courtenay to Earl of Devon.
- Compared to this, Edward IV created 9 new earls.
Name three people who received patronage from Henry, and what were they?
- Earl of Oxford - became major landowner in East Anglia (for loyalty in exile & Bosworth)
- Jasper Tudor - made Duke of Bedford & restored Welsh estates (for loyalty in exile & Bosworth)
- Lord Daubeney - promoted to peerage after fighting Cornish rebels in 1497
- In these ways, patronage was rewarded to those who proved loyalty over a long period of time.
Name two councillors who were hated for their rigorous collection of bonds and recognisances.
- Richard Empson
- Edmund Dudley
What did Dudley admit after Henry VII's death about bonds and recognisances?
He admitted there were 84 cases where he acted illegally under Henry in order to collect bonds and recognisances. (Dudley was later executed by Henry VIII because he was so unpopular).
Between ____ and ____, ___ out of ___ noble families gave bonds and recognisances to Henry, whereas only ___ had to pay in Yorkist rule. HOWEVER, Henry _____ collected the full sums, this shows that perhaps Henry was not _____.
Between 1485 and 1509, 36 out of 62 noble families gave bonds and recognisances to Henry, whereas only 1 peer had to pay in Yorkist rule. HOWEVER, Henry rarely collected the full sums, this shows that perhaps Henry was not greedy.
How much did revenue from bonds and recognisances increase?
- 1493 - 3,000 pounds
- 1505 - 35,000 pounds
Henry used bonds and recognisances as a "stick" by making nobles pay them if they did not behave, but also used it as an incentive for good behaviour and loyalty, by reversing it if they proved to be loyal. Give an example of this.
The case of Thomas Grey - 1492 he was forced to give recognisances of 1000 pounds (Henry didn't trust him), but by 1499, he had proved his loyalty for example by fighting in the Cornish rebellions, and thus Henry cancelled its agreements. The b & r's system of suspended penalties had served its purpose here.
Henry's use of bonds and recognisances are similar to his use of Acts of Attainder in that:
use of both became more severe as his reign went on.
When did Henry pass his two acts against retaining? And which is the more important one?
- 1487 and 1504. (The wording was similar in tone to Edward's in 1468).
- The 1504 one is more important, because it was harsher as it eliminated EdIV's clause for allowing "lawful retaining".
How did Henry restrain retaining?
- The act of 1504:
- where it eliminated Edward's ambiguous clause for allowing "lawful retaining".
- It laid down stricter methods of enforcement.
- Itroduced novel system of licensing whereby lords could keep retainers sole for king's service (had to be endorsed with the privy seal) - (again, personalised government?)
- At beginning of his reign, made members of Houses of Parliament to swear that they would not retain illegally.
- Although lawful retaining was allowed to continue, it was often accompanied by a recognisance to ensure the retinue was not misused.
- Most importantly, Henry interpreted the laws against retaining more strictly and was more determined to enforce them.
Give 2 examples of how Henry did not let family/friend relations get in the way of his duty in his enforcement of the punishment for illegal retaining. How did this contrast to Edward?
- Even punished her mother, Lady Margaret
- Punished his friend and highly valued advisor, Earl of Oxford
- Fined Bishop Stanely, his step-brother, a huge sum of 245,680 pounds
- Edward often turned a blind eye towards the misdemeanors (not too serious crime) of those close to him.
What have the recent civil wars shown about the dangers of uncontrolled retaining?
- That retainers could create
- lawlessness at both local and national levels
- and could be used as an effective force against the king (for it provided a quick and efficient way of raising an army).
Retaining continued well into the reign of ______, so Henry certainly did not ______ the practice, but he _____ it to a far greater extent that his predecessors, and prevented it from being a significant problem.
Retaining continued well into the reign of Elizabeth I, so Henry certainly did not eliminate the practice, but he controlled it to a far greater extent that his predecessors, and prevented it from being a significant problem.
How many Acts of Attainder were passed between 1504 - 1509?
- More than any other period in his reign (greedier towards end of his reign?)
Give and example of how Henry used the Act of Attainder.
- To Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey
- Imprisoned and attainted in 1486 after his father (Duke of Norfolk) fought and died for RIII at Bosworth.
- 1489 - released from Tower after taking oath of allegiance and after refusing to escape during Simnel plot (proved his loyalty). Process of reversal of attainder started - restored to Earl of Surrey.
- Later 1489 - he was appointed lieutenant of Council of North - effective there, as there was incentives to reverse more of the attainder to be restored to more Howard estates.
Attainders were nothing ___ but the _____ with which Henry used them was ___. Many reversed attainders had special ______ attached, whereas Edward IV only had __ such reversal.
Attainders were nothing new but the severity with which Henry used them was new. Many reversed attainders had special conditions attached, whereas Edward IV only had 1 such reversal.
How many knights of the Garter did Henry create? Including whom?
- Including Earl of Oxford and Daubeney
Why was using the Order of the Garter to reward nobles effective?
- Because it gave the recipient prestige but not power or land.
- Henry could reward nobles without compromising his own power or making magnates more powerful.
The extent of Henry's increase in level of control can be seen in the increase in proceeds from feudal dues from wardship and marriage. How much did it increase?
- 1487 - 350 pounds
- 1507 - 6,000 pounds
- (Increased greed?)
Again, Henry's strong sense of duty and justice is shown from how he punished which relative and for trying to do what? (think about unlicensed marriage)
- Katherine Woodville
- married her 3rd husband without royal license
- Henry fined her 2,000 pounds
- Even though she was the Queen's aunt and had once been wife of Jasper Tudor. (This fact did not come between the king and his duty)
Name the act associated with Henry's control and regaining of the crown lands. When was it passed? Also, what did Henry not do?
- Act of Resumption of 1486
- This recovered for the crown all lands granted away since 1455.
- This showed Henry's awareness of the importance of crown lands early on in his reign.
- BUT HE DID NOT COLLECT ALL ELIGIBLE LAND so as not to antagonise nobles affected. (not greedy but efficient and sensitive).
How did Henry's ordinary revenue from crown lands increase?
- 1486 - 12,000 pounds
- 1509 - 42,000 pounds
When did Henry realise income from crown lands was dropping, and what did he do as a result?
- In 1487, (RIII - 25,000 p/a; 1486 - 12,000)
- So he reintroduced the Chamber and by 1490's Chamber was the centre of royal finances.
- Shows Henry's flexibility and awareness and ability to improve things.
Even though the most collection of finances were now done through the Chamber, what was the Exchequer still used to collect?
- Customs duties and accounts of sheriffs.
- Perhaps collection of these were more suited for the meticulous system of the Exchequer.
- Shows Henry's awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of both systems - financial ability.
Henry asked for loans from his subjects in times of need such as in ___ against _____ and the ____. However, he only asked for ______ sums and repaid it __ _____ __ ______. For this reason, there is no evidence of nobles ____ this.
- Henry asked for loans from his subjects in times of need such as in 1496 against Warbeck and the Scots. However, he only asked for modest sums and repaid it as soon as possible . For this reason, there is no evidence of nobles resenting this.
- It is obvious that Henry did not want to be in debt to any of his subjects for he did not want to undermine his power by being dependent on them.
Henry collected a total of ______ pounds in benevolences ____ for the preparation of the invasion of _____. Henry's ____ _______ were _____ in its collection.
Henry collected a total of 48,500 pounds in benevolences in 1491 for the preparation of the invasion of France. Henry's royal commissioners were stringent in its collection.
As chief ____ ____, Henry fully exploited these rights to increase income from feudal obligations. He received _____ pounds in ____ for the knighting of ____ _____ 15 years ealier. (He was dead by this time - died in ____).
As chief feudal lord, Henry fully exploited these rights to increase income from feudal obligations. He received 30,000 pounds in 1504 for the knighting of Prince Arthur 15 years ealier. (He was dead by this time! - died in 1502).