Genese occupying corresponding loci in homologous chromosomes that affect the same hereditary trait but in different ways
The use of micorganisms, plant cells, animal cells, or parts of cells (such as enzymes) to produce industrially important products or processes
Animals of common origin with charateristics that distinguish them from other groups within the same species
the desire of a female bird to sit on eggs (incubate)
the physical form of an animal; its shape and arrangement of parts
An animal produced by crossing two or more breeds
to eliminate one or more animals form the breeding herd or flock
A genetic trait in cattle where muscles are geatly inlarge rather than douplicate muscles.
expected Pogeny difference
One half of the breedin value; the difference in proformance to be expected from future progeny of a sire, compared with that expected from future progeny of an average bull in the same test.
Well diveloped secondary female sex characteristics, utter development and definement in head and neck
Demestocated animals that returned to nature to survive and reproduce.
Animals having the same sire and dam
Male and female reproductive cells. The sperm and the egg
The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
The techneque of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
The sum total of a living organisms genetic material. the geneome is devided into chromosomes, which contain genes, and the genes are made of DNA.
Animals having one common parent
A term that indicates the % of a given # of eggs set from which viable young hatch, sometimes calculated specificaly from the # egg of fertal egg set.
Perfromance of offspring that is greater than the average of the parents. ususally the amount of sepeirority of te cross bred over the aveage of the parental breeds. also verfers to as a hybrid vigor
Coresponding in type of structure and derived from a common primative orgin.
A term designating an individual whose genes for a particular trait are alike
Life span of an animal. Usually refers to a long life spand
(1) statistical term for average.
(2) term used to describe animals having a bad behavior
The rccord of the ansestory of the animal
naturally or genetcally hornless
(2) equipment on which an animal is weighed
Differentially reproducing what one wants in a herd or flock
Animals that contain genes transfered from animals, usually from a different species.
(1) the physical conformation of an animal
(2) all those physical attributes that contribute to the value of the animal for the specific perpose.
Sheep cannot see, owing to wool covering their eyes.
distictive features (such as form,head, color and markings) in which one breed differes form another.
Refers to a lack of quality
Posession of a well developed secondary male sex characteristics in head, neck and shoulders.
Refers to a long body
Lack of smoothness-angular, ect
refers to scale in combination with bone. Big and Strong
A vey inferior animal in breeding and in conformation. And century unknown.
refers to neatly connected and smooth hips, and shoulders, and uniform lines.
Refers to heaviness of bones
Cuts of beef put into boxes for shipping from packing plants to retailers. These primal and subprimal cuts are intermediate cuts between the carcass and the retail cuts.
A male sheep or goat. This terms usually denotes animals of breeding age
A bovine male. The term usually denotes animals of a breeding age
A young bull, tupically less than 20 months of age
Scrotal area of the steer remaining after castrastion
1) a carcass grade o cattle
2) livestock tht are not registered or pegereed by a rergistry association
A heiffer that has calved once, after which the heifer is fed for slaughter; the calf has usually died or been weaned at an early age
The difference in cost per ctw of the feeder animal and th selling price oer ctw of the slaughter animal
Point on the lamb carcass where the foot and pastern removed at the cartaliginioius junction at the front legs.
1) to cut off the tail
2) the remaining portion of the tail of the sheep that has been docked
3) to reduce or lower in value
The natural, wholeskin covering, including the wool, hair, or fur (e.g) sheep pelt that has the wool on
The joint where the foot and pastern are removed from the front leg. Used to id a mutton carcass
Male sheep castrated b4 reaching puberty
1) the yello prt ofte eg
2) the natural grease (lanolin) of wool
Meat from goats
Fat,lean, and bone composition of meat animals. Used interchangably with yeild grade
% of the live animal weight that becomes the carcass weight at slaughter. It is determined by dividing the carcass weight by the live weight, then X 100.
The degree of fatness of an animal
Meat from ruminant animals with split hooves where the animals have been slaughtered by jewish law
The fat from pigs that has been produced from a rendering process
Animals grouped according to the use to which they will be put, such as slaughter, feeder, or stocker
Animals grouped within a market class according to their value
All organs or tissues removed from the inside of the animal durring the slaughtering process
Loss of weight; commonly used in the loss of live weight when animals are marketed or loss from grease wool to clean wool
castrated male sheep, cattle, goats, or swine that have reached sexual maturity prior to castration
1) reaches full development quickly
2) reaches market size and finish quickly
3) tendency to grow and fatten at the same time
Degree os muscling, or ration of muscle to fat and bone
The most valuable portions of a carcass. Usually includes leg, loin and rib; May include other cuts as well
A young meat-type chicken, usually 3-5 months of age, of either sex, that can be cooked tender by roasting, usually weighing 4 lbs or over
A mature female chicken, usually more than 10 months of age, that requires moist, pressurized, or extended cooking; also called hen or fowl
As applied to a carcass, this term means having too much fat, requiring excessive trimming; may also be applid to paunchy animals
the fat of cattle and sheep
the meat from very young cattle, under 3 months of age
One which furnishes the serveral nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and fat) in such proportion and amount as will prperly nouish a given animal for 24 hours
Adult female dog
Toward the tail of an animal
An animal to whom an owner has an intense emotional tie
In meat animals and draft horses this term means degree of fatness; in race horses, state of being fit to race; in breeding animals, the state of being fit to conceive readily
toward the head of an animal; see also anterior
Refers to individual feeds being available to animals so they can choose the proportion of each they prefer
Uit of measure equalto 4 inches
Pig, of either sex, usually between 160 lb and market weight
Farming, especialy when regarded as a science, skill, art; care of farm animals
Away from the median plan (the plane which divides the body intoleft and right halves, front to rear)
Having short legs
Towards the median plane (the plane that divides the body into left and right halves, front to rear)
Animals kept for pleasur rather than utility
Young of swine, usually under 6 months of age
Small horse, less than 14.2 hands at the withers
Refers to swine
Reproducing regularly and numerously
Adult female cat
Secondary sex characters
Those physical characteristics which distinguish the male and female; i.e., heavy chest on bulls
A castrated Turkey
Away from (below) the backbone or toward the mid-abdominal wall
A product produced by living organisms, such as yeast, which destroys or inhibits the growth of other microorganisms, especially bacteria
A Specific protein molecule that is produced in response to foreign protein (antigen) that has been introduced into the body
A foreign substance that, when introduced into the blood or tissues, causes the formation of antibodies. Antigens ma be toxins or native proteins
The process of transforming food into living tissue
Refers to birds; including poultry
A statemenr of assets owned and liabilities owned in dollar terms thta shows the equity or net worth at a specific point in time (i.e. net worth statement)
A male swine that was castrated before reaching puberty
The meat from cattle other than calves
Medicinal products used primarilyto prevent disease, including serums, vaccines, antigens, antitoxins, ect
1) a male swine of breeding age. 2) denotes a male pig, which is called a boar pig
A general family grouping of cattle
A young male or female bovine aimal under 1 year of age
Castrated male chicken. Usually occurs between 3 and 4 weeks of age
A financial statement summarizing all cash receipts and disbursements over the period of time covered by the statement
1) to remove the testicles 2) an animal that has had its testicles removed
Chemical agents used to prevent or treat disease
A young chicken that has recently been hatched
Eggs laid by a hen on consecutive days
A male chicken; also called rooster
Immature male chicken
The first milk given by a female after delivery of her young
A young male donkey or horse
A sexually mature female bovine animal- usually one that has produced a calf
An animal produced by crossing two or more breeds
Feed ingrediants or mixture of ingredients ( including water) that are consumed by animals.
The reduction in particle size of feed so that the feed becomes soluble and can pass across the gut wall into the vascular or lymph system
Any deviation from a normal state of health
A female goat or rabbit
of,on, or near teh back of an animal
Soft, fluffy type of feathe located under the contour feathers. Serves as insulating material.
Mature male duck
To give fluid by mouth(e.g., medicated fluid is given to sheep for parasite control)
Discharge of semen from the male
Very early stage of individual development within the uterus. The embryo grows and develops intoa fetus. In poultry, the embryo develops within the eggshell.
The sum total of all external conditions that affect the well-being and performance of an animal
Refers to Horse
The period of mating activity in the female mammal. same as heat
The study of animal behavor in the animals natural environment
Ingedients (such as an antibotics or hormone-like substance) added to a diet to perform a specific role (i.e., to improve gain or feed efficiency)
1) the amount of feed required to produce a unit of gain or milk; for poultry, this term can also denote the amount of feed required to produce a given quantity of egg. 2) The amount of gain made per unit of feed
The capacity to initiate, sustain, and support reproduction. With reference to poultry, the term typically refers to the percenage of eggs that, when incubated, show some degree of embryonic developement.
Later stage of individual development within the uterus. Generally, the new individual is regarded as an embryo during the first half or pregnancy, and as fetus during the last half.
A young female horse
The wool shorn at one time form all parts of the sheep
A group of sheep or poultry
A young male or female horse or the act of giving birth
Mature male goose
A male hore that has been castrated
The genetic constitution, or makeup, of a individual. For any pair of alleles, 3 genotypes (AA, Aa, aa) are possible
The time from breeding or conception of a female until she fives birth to her young.
A young female swine prior to the time that she has produced her first litter
The testis of the male; the ovary of the female.
A young female bovine cow before the time that she has produced her first calf
An adult female domestic fowl, such as chicken or turkey
A chemical substance secreted by a ductless gland. Usually carried by the bloodstream to other places in the body where it has its specific effort on another organ
The time that elapses from the time an eggis placed into an incubator until the young is hatched
Invasion of the body tissues by microbial agents or parasites other than insects.
The offspring that results when you cross a stallion with a female donkey (Jenny)
The ability to learn to adjust successfully to situation
A male donkey
A female donkey
Kilocalorie (kcal, Kcal)
An amount of heat equal to 1,000 calories
The secretion and production of milk
1) a young male or female sheep, usually less than a year of age. 2) to deliver, or give birth to, a lamb
Sex drive or the desireto mate on the part of the male
The act, art, or manner of managing, handling, controlling, or directing a resource or integrating several resources
The distribution of fat in muscular tissue; intramuscular fat
A sexually developed female horse
Measurement of illness; morbidity rate is the number of individuals in a group that become ill during a specific time
The hybrid that is produced by mating a male donkey with a female horse. They are usually sterile
Perform a postmortem examination
Returns given up if debt-free resources (land, livestck, equipment) are used in their next-best level of employment
An organism that lives a part of its life cycle in or on, and at the expence of another organism.
Biological agent ( bacteria, virus, protozoa) that may produce disease or illness
The characteristics of an animal that can be seen and/or measured
The meat from swine
Towards the rear end of an animal
A young turkey of either sex, from hatching to approximatly 10 weeks of age
This term includes chickens, turkeys, geese, pigeons, peafowl, guineas, and game birds
Turned inside out
The age at which the reproductive organs become functionally operative
Young fmale chicken from day of hatch through onset of egg productions; sometimes the term is usedd through the first laying year
An animal eigible for registry with a recognized breed association
A male sheep that is sexully mature
The amount of total feed fed to an animal over a 24-hour period
To cast up digested food to the mouth as is done by ruminants
A mammal whose stomach has 4 parts (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum)
The fluid containing the sperm.
Diarrhea; a profused watery discharge from the intestines
The process of removing the fleece (wool) from a sheep.
A young pig of either sex
A femae swine that has farrowed one litter or has reached 12 months of age
To remove the ovaries
A sexually mature male horse
A castrated bovine male that was castrated early in life before puberty
An unusual or abnormal influence causing a change in an animals function, structure or behavior
Situated beneath, or occurring beneath the skin. (injection under the skin)
Thermoneutral ( comfort) zone
Range in temp where rate and efficiency of gain is maximized. Comfort zone
A male turkey
Suspension of attenuated or killed microbes or toxins administered to induce active immunity
Ultramicroscopic bundle of genetic material capable of multiplying only living cells.
Separating young animals from their dams so that the offspring can no longer suckle
the time before slaughter that a drug should not be given to an animal