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  1. Alleles
    Genese occupying corresponding loci in homologous chromosomes that affect the same hereditary trait but in different ways
  2. Biotechnology
    The use of micorganisms, plant cells, animal cells, or parts of cells (such as enzymes) to produce industrially important products or processes
  3. Breed
    Animals of common origin with charateristics that distinguish them from other groups within the same species
  4. Broodiness
    the desire of a female bird to sit on eggs (incubate)
  5. Conformaton
    the physical form of an animal; its shape and arrangement of parts
  6. Crossbred
    An animal produced by crossing two or more breeds
  7. Cull
    to eliminate one or more animals form the breeding herd or flock
  8. Double Muscling
    A genetic trait in cattle where muscles are geatly inlarge rather than douplicate muscles.
  9. expected Pogeny difference
    One half of the breedin value; the difference in proformance to be expected from future progeny of a sire, compared with that expected from future progeny of an average bull in the same test.
  10. Feminitity
    Well diveloped secondary female sex characteristics, utter development and definement in head and neck
  11. Feral
    Demestocated animals that returned to nature to survive and reproduce.
  12. Full Sibs
    Animals having the same sire and dam
  13. Gametes
    Male and female reproductive cells. The sperm and the egg
  14. Gene
    The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
  15. Genetic engineering
    The techneque of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
  16. Genome
    The sum total of a living organisms genetic material. the geneome is devided into chromosomes, which contain genes, and the genes are made of DNA.
  17. Half-sib
    Animals having one common parent
  18. Hatchability
    A term that indicates the % of a given # of eggs set from which viable young hatch, sometimes calculated specificaly from the # egg of fertal egg set.
  19. Hetereosis
    Perfromance of offspring that is greater than the average of the parents. ususally the amount of sepeirority of te cross bred over the aveage of the parental breeds. also verfers to as a hybrid vigor
  20. Homologous
    Coresponding in type of structure and derived from a common primative orgin.
  21. Homozygous
    A term designating an individual whose genes for a particular trait are alike
  22. Longevity
    Life span of an animal. Usually refers to a long life spand
  23. Mean
    • (1) statistical term for average.
    • (2) term used to describe animals having a bad behavior
  24. Pedigree
    The rccord of the ansestory of the animal
  25. Polled
    naturally or genetcally hornless
  26. Scale
    • (1) size
    • (2) equipment on which an animal is weighed
  27. Selection
    Differentially reproducing what one wants in a herd or flock
  28. Transgenic animals
    Animals that contain genes transfered from animals, usually from a different species.
  29. Type
    • (1) the physical conformation of an animal
    • (2) all those physical attributes that contribute to the value of the animal for the specific perpose.
  30. Wool blindness
    Sheep cannot see, owing to wool covering their eyes.
  31. Breedtype
    distictive features (such as form,head, color and markings) in which one breed differes form another.
  32. Coarseness
    Refers to a lack of quality
  33. Masculinity
    Posession of a well developed secondary male sex characteristics in head, neck and shoulders.
  34. Ranging
    Refers to a long body
  35. Roughness
    Lack of smoothness-angular, ect
  36. Ruggedness
    refers to scale in combination with bone. Big and Strong
  37. Scrub
    A vey inferior animal in breeding and in conformation. And century unknown.
  38. smoothness
    refers to neatly connected and smooth hips, and shoulders, and uniform lines.
  39. Substance
    Refers to heaviness of bones
  40. Boxed Beef
    Cuts of beef put into boxes for shipping from packing plants to retailers. These primal and subprimal cuts are intermediate cuts between the carcass and the retail cuts.
  41. Buck
    A male sheep or goat. This terms usually denotes animals of breeding age
  42. Bull
    A bovine male. The term usually denotes animals of a breeding age
  43. Bullock
    A young bull, tupically less than 20 months of age
  44. Cod
    Scrotal area of the steer remaining after castrastion
  45. Commercial
    • 1) a carcass grade o cattle
    • 2) livestock tht are not registered or pegereed by a rergistry association
  46. Heiferette
    A heiffer that has calved once, after which the heifer is fed for slaughter; the calf has usually died or been weaned at an early age
  47. Margin
    The difference in cost per ctw of the feeder animal and th selling price oer ctw of the slaughter animal
  48. Break joint
    Point on the lamb carcass where the foot and pastern removed at the cartaliginioius junction at the front legs.
  49. Dock
    • 1) to cut off the tail
    • 2) the remaining portion of the tail of the sheep that has been docked
    • 3) to reduce or lower in value
  50. Kid
    Young goat
  51. Pelt
    The natural, wholeskin covering, including the wool, hair, or fur (e.g) sheep pelt that has the wool on
  52. Spool Joint
    The joint where the foot and pastern are removed from the front leg. Used to id a mutton carcass
  53. Wether
    Male sheep castrated b4 reaching puberty
  54. Yolk
    • 1) the yello prt ofte eg
    • 2) the natural grease (lanolin) of wool
  55. Antemortem
    Before death
  56. Chevon
    Meat from goats
  57. Cutability
    Fat,lean, and bone composition of meat animals. Used interchangably with yeild grade
  58. Dressing Percentage
    % of the live animal weight that becomes the carcass weight at slaughter. It is determined by dividing the carcass weight by the live weight, then X 100.
  59. Finish
    The degree of fatness of an animal
  60. Kosher Meat
    Meat from ruminant animals with split hooves where the animals have been slaughtered by jewish law
  61. Lard
    The fat from pigs that has been produced from a rendering process
  62. Market Class
    Animals grouped according to the use to which they will be put, such as slaughter, feeder, or stocker
  63. Market grade
    Animals grouped within a market class according to their value
  64. Offal
    All organs or tissues removed from the inside of the animal durring the slaughtering process
  65. Shrink
    Loss of weight; commonly used in the loss of live weight when animals are marketed or loss from grease wool to clean wool
  66. Stag
    castrated male sheep, cattle, goats, or swine that have reached sexual maturity prior to castration
  67. Early Maturity
    • 1) reaches full development quickly
    • 2) reaches market size and finish quickly
    • 3) tendency to grow and fatten at the same time
  68. meatiness
    Degree os muscling, or ration of muscle to fat and bone
  69. Primal Cuts
    The most valuable portions of a carcass. Usually includes leg, loin and rib; May include other cuts as well
  70. Roaster
    A young meat-type chicken, usually 3-5 months of age, of either sex, that can be cooked tender by roasting, usually weighing 4 lbs or over
  71. Stewing chicken
    A mature female chicken, usually more than 10 months of age, that requires moist, pressurized, or extended cooking; also called hen or fowl
  72. Wasty
    As applied to a carcass, this term means having too much fat, requiring excessive trimming; may also be applid to paunchy animals
  73. Tallow
    the fat of cattle and sheep
  74. Veal
    the meat from very young cattle, under 3 months of age
  75. Balanced Ration
    One which furnishes the serveral nutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and fat) in such proportion and amount as will prperly nouish a given animal for 24 hours
  76. Bitch
    Adult female dog
  77. Caudal
    Toward the tail of an animal
  78. Companion Animal
    An animal to whom an owner has an intense emotional tie
  79. Condition
    In meat animals and draft horses this term means degree of fatness; in race horses, state of being fit to race; in breeding animals, the state of being fit to conceive readily
  80. Cranial
    toward the head of an animal; see also anterior
  81. Free Choice
    Refers to individual feeds being available to animals so they can choose the proportion of each they prefer
  82. Hand
    Uit of measure equalto 4 inches
  83. Hog
    Pig, of either sex, usually between 160 lb and market weight
  84. Husbandry
    Farming, especialy when regarded as a science, skill, art; care of farm animals
  85. Lateral
    Away from the median plan (the plane which divides the body intoleft and right halves, front to rear)
  86. Low set
    Having short legs
  87. Medial
    Towards the median plane (the plane that divides the body into left and right halves, front to rear)
  88. Pets
    Animals kept for pleasur rather than utility
  89. Pig
    Young of swine, usually under 6 months of age
  90. Pony
    Small horse, less than 14.2 hands at the withers
  91. Porcine
    Refers to swine
  92. Prolific
    Reproducing regularly and numerously
  93. Queen
    Adult female cat
  94. Secondary sex characters
    Those physical characteristics which distinguish the male and female; i.e., heavy chest on bulls
  95. Tim
    A castrated Turkey
  96. Ventral
    Away from (below) the backbone or toward the mid-abdominal wall
  97. Antibiotic
    A product produced by living organisms, such as yeast, which destroys or inhibits the growth of other microorganisms, especially bacteria
  98. Antibody
    A Specific protein molecule that is produced in response to foreign protein (antigen) that has been introduced into the body
  99. Antigen
    A foreign substance that, when introduced into the blood or tissues, causes the formation of antibodies. Antigens ma be toxins or native proteins
  100. Assimilation
    The process of transforming food into living tissue
  101. Avian
    Refers to birds; including poultry
  102. Balance sheet
    A statemenr of assets owned and liabilities owned in dollar terms thta shows the equity or net worth at a specific point in time (i.e. net worth statement)
  103. Barrow
    A male swine that was castrated before reaching puberty
  104. Beef
    The meat from cattle other than calves
  105. Biologicals
    Medicinal products used primarilyto prevent disease, including serums, vaccines, antigens, antitoxins, ect
  106. Boar
    1) a male swine of breeding age. 2) denotes a male pig, which is called a boar pig
  107. Bovine
    A general family grouping of cattle
  108. Calf
    A young male or female bovine aimal under 1 year of age
  109. Capon
    Castrated male chicken. Usually occurs between 3 and 4 weeks of age
  110. Cash-flow statement
    A financial statement summarizing all cash receipts and disbursements over the period of time covered by the statement
  111. Castrate
    1) to remove the testicles 2) an animal that has had its testicles removed
  112. Chemotherapeutics
    Chemical agents used to prevent or treat disease
  113. Chick
    A young chicken that has recently been hatched
  114. Clutch
    Eggs laid by a hen on consecutive days
  115. Cock
    A male chicken; also called rooster
  116. Cockerel
    Immature male chicken
  117. Colostrum
    The first milk given by a female after delivery of her young
  118. Colt
    A young male donkey or horse
  119. Cow
    A sexually mature female bovine animal- usually one that has produced a calf
  120. Crossbred
    An animal produced by crossing two or more breeds
  121. Diet
    Feed ingrediants or mixture of ingredients ( including water) that are consumed by animals.
  122. Digestion
    The reduction in particle size of feed so that the feed becomes soluble and can pass across the gut wall into the vascular or lymph system
  123. Disese
    Any deviation from a normal state of health
  124. Doe
    A female goat or rabbit
  125. Dorsal
    of,on, or near teh back of an animal
  126. Down
    Soft, fluffy type of feathe located under the contour feathers. Serves as insulating material.
  127. Drake
    Mature male duck
  128. Drench
    To give fluid by mouth(e.g., medicated fluid is given to sheep for parasite control)
  129. Ejaculation
    Discharge of semen from the male
  130. Embryo
    Very early stage of individual development within the uterus. The embryo grows and develops intoa fetus. In poultry, the embryo develops within the eggshell.
  131. Enviroment
    The sum total of all external conditions that affect the well-being and performance of an animal
  132. Equine
    Refers to Horse
  133. Estrus
    The period of mating activity in the female mammal. same as heat
  134. *Ethology*
    The study of animal behavor in the animals natural environment
  135. Feed additive
    Ingedients (such as an antibotics or hormone-like substance) added to a diet to perform a specific role (i.e., to improve gain or feed efficiency)
  136. Feed Efficiency
    1) the amount of feed required to produce a unit of gain or milk; for poultry, this term can also denote the amount of feed required to produce a given quantity of egg. 2) The amount of gain made per unit of feed
  137. Fertility
    The capacity to initiate, sustain, and support reproduction. With reference to poultry, the term typically refers to the percenage of eggs that, when incubated, show some degree of embryonic developement.
  138. Fetus
    Later stage of individual development within the uterus. Generally, the new individual is regarded as an embryo during the first half or pregnancy, and as fetus during the last half.
  139. Filly
    A young female horse
  140. Fleece
    The wool shorn at one time form all parts of the sheep
  141. Flock
    A group of sheep or poultry
  142. Foal
    A young male or female horse or the act of giving birth
  143. Gander
    Mature male goose
  144. Gelding
    A male hore that has been castrated
  145. Genotype
    The genetic constitution, or makeup, of a individual. For any pair of alleles, 3 genotypes (AA, Aa, aa) are possible
  146. Gestation
    The time from breeding or conception of a female until she fives birth to her young.
  147. Gilt
    A young female swine prior to the time that she has produced her first litter
  148. Gonad
    The testis of the male; the ovary of the female.
  149. Heifer
    A young female bovine cow before the time that she has produced her first calf
  150. Hen
    An adult female domestic fowl, such as chicken or turkey
  151. Hormone
    A chemical substance secreted by a ductless gland. Usually carried by the bloodstream to other places in the body where it has its specific effort on another organ
  152. Incubation period
    The time that elapses from the time an eggis placed into an incubator until the young is hatched
  153. Infection
    Invasion of the body tissues by microbial agents or parasites other than insects.
  154. Hinney
    The offspring that results when you cross a stallion with a female donkey (Jenny)
  155. Intelligence
    The ability to learn to adjust successfully to situation
  156. Jack (jackass)
    A male donkey
  157. Jenny (Jennet)
    A female donkey
  158. Kilocalorie (kcal, Kcal)
    An amount of heat equal to 1,000 calories
  159. Lactation
    The secretion and production of milk
  160. Lamb
    1) a young male or female sheep, usually less than a year of age. 2) to deliver, or give birth to, a lamb
  161. Libido
    Sex drive or the desireto mate on the part of the male
  162. Management
    The act, art, or manner of managing, handling, controlling, or directing a resource or integrating several resources
  163. Marbling
    The distribution of fat in muscular tissue; intramuscular fat
  164. Mare
    A sexually developed female horse
  165. Morbidity
    Measurement of illness; morbidity rate is the number of individuals in a group that become ill during a specific time
  166. Mule
    The hybrid that is produced by mating a male donkey with a female horse. They are usually sterile
  167. Necropsy (autopsy)
    Perform a postmortem examination
  168. Opportunity Cost
    Returns given up if debt-free resources (land, livestck, equipment) are used in their next-best level of employment
  169. Parasite
    An organism that lives a part of its life cycle in or on, and at the expence of another organism.
  170. Pathogen
    Biological agent ( bacteria, virus, protozoa) that may produce disease or illness
  171. Phenotype
    The characteristics of an animal that can be seen and/or measured
  172. Pork
    The meat from swine
  173. Posterior
    Towards the rear end of an animal
  174. Poult
    A young turkey of either sex, from hatching to approximatly 10 weeks of age
  175. Poultry
    This term includes chickens, turkeys, geese, pigeons, peafowl, guineas, and game birds
  176. Prolapsed
    Turned inside out
  177. Puberty
    The age at which the reproductive organs become functionally operative
  178. Pullet
    Young fmale chicken from day of hatch through onset of egg productions; sometimes the term is usedd through the first laying year
  179. Purebred
    An animal eigible for registry with a recognized breed association
  180. Ram
    A male sheep that is sexully mature
  181. Ration
    The amount of total feed fed to an animal over a 24-hour period
  182. Regurgitate
    To cast up digested food to the mouth as is done by ruminants
  183. Ruminant
    A mammal whose stomach has 4 parts (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum)
  184. Semen
    The fluid containing the sperm.
  185. Scours
    Diarrhea; a profused watery discharge from the intestines
  186. Shearing
    The process of removing the fleece (wool) from a sheep.
  187. Shoat
    A young pig of either sex
  188. Sow
    A femae swine that has farrowed one litter or has reached 12 months of age
  189. Spay
    To remove the ovaries
  190. Stallion
    A sexually mature male horse
  191. Steer
    A castrated bovine male that was castrated early in life before puberty
  192. Stress
    An unusual or abnormal influence causing a change in an animals function, structure or behavior
  193. Subcutaneous
    Situated beneath, or occurring beneath the skin. (injection under the skin)
  194. Thermoneutral ( comfort) zone
    Range in temp where rate and efficiency of gain is maximized. Comfort zone
  195. Tom
    A male turkey
  196. Vaccine
    Suspension of attenuated or killed microbes or toxins administered to induce active immunity
  197. Virus
    Ultramicroscopic bundle of genetic material capable of multiplying only living cells.
  198. Weanling
    Separating young animals from their dams so that the offspring can no longer suckle
  199. Withdrawal time
    the time before slaughter that a drug should not be given to an animal
  200. Yearling
    Animals that are approximately one year of age
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Exam Voc prt 2
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