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How did Henry use the King's Council in comparison to his Yorkist predecessors?
Like his Yorkist predecessors, used smaller committees formed from within the council, but used on a more regular basis.
How was stability achieved in the King's council?
- Elite councillors, such as Dudley, Morton and Fox, gave stability to the new regime because Henry kept them in power for so long.
- eg. Fox was Lord Privy Seal for 22 years.
Henry's __ key councillors had all _____ themselved with Henry before ______. Give examples of these people.
- Henry's 5 key councillors had all aligned themselves with Henry before Bosworth.
- eg. Thomas Lovell and Giles Daubeney
One example of how Henry renovated the King's Council.
Henry resurrected the Court of Requests (for poor people), established by Richard III, in the second half of his reign.
What was the Great Council? Give an example of when it was used.
- Meetings of noblemen, called together by the king to discuss high matters of state, usually in moments of emergency when calling of Parliament would have taken too long.
- eg. 1491 - authorised war agaisnt France
How was the Great council a useful form for the king to control the nobility?
Because these meetings were a way of gaining the support of his most important subjects for any potentially controversial policy, and therefore, if they agreed there, it would be hard for them to turn back and criticise the king in the future.
List 3 ways of how Henry let his power/commands felt in the local governments?
- By exploiting crown lands
- Encouraging more frequent use of royal council for settlement of local lawsuits
- Increasing power of the JP's
Why was it important to let nobles, to an extent, assert power in their regions? However, what was also important?
- It was important for upholding law and order in his kingdom.
- However, also important to centralise government and to control the power of the nobility in their regions and also to ensure absolute loyalty from them.
What was Henry's basic policy when dealing with local government and controlling magnates?
Kept individual nobles controlling provinces but kept their power limited to make sure they were loyal to him.
Customs duties - during the reign of Edward IV, the average annual yield had ______ owing to his ______ of trade and a _____ administration. Did Henry follow in his example or not? How?
- Customs duties - during the reign of Edward IV, the average annual yield had increased owing to his encouragement of trade and a lighter administration.
- Henry did follow his example by blocking many of the loopholes in the system.
Give an example of how Henry blocked some of the loopholes in the system of collecting customs duties.
1487 - merchants involved in coastal trading had to produce certificate specifying duties payed.
Despite Henry's efforts, revenue from customs duties only grew from _____ to _____ pounds.
Despite Henry's efforts, revenue from customs duties only grew from 33,000 to 40,000 pounds.
How did Henry exploit the profits from justice in order to increase incomes from this area? Give an example of when he did this.
- Henry preferred levying significant fines on wrongdoers to executing or imprisoning them. (greedy?)
- eg. Treatment of the rebels after the Cornish rebellion of 1497.
How did Henry often punish the wealthy?
By passing Acts of Attainder. In this way, he punished the wealthy to the financial benefit of the crown.
Give 2 ways of how Henry exploited the money from the Church. How much money did he manage to get from this?
- Made money from simony (selling of church appointments)
- Kept bishoprics vacant for many months - in order to pocket the revenue in the meantime (like his predecessors)
- Made 6,000 p/a from this (towards later parts of his reign)
Even though Henry did exploit money form the Church by leaving bishoprics vacant, what evidence is there to suggest that actually, he was not too greedy?
- Henry did not exploit this method as much as some of his contemporaries in nearby countries such as France and Spain, where they often prolonged vacancies for years.
- Henry rarely left a diocese (church territory) without a bishop for more than 12 months.
In which treaty did Henry manage to secure the French pension and how much did he get? This was similar to what?
- He secured French pension of 159,000 pounds (5,000 p/a) in the Treaty of Etaples of 1492.
- Similar to policy followed by Edward IV in Treaty of Picquigny of 1475.
In 1489, after the death of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, Henry appointed who as lieutenant of the Council of the North? And why was this effective?
- Appointed Earl of Surrey.
- He had been released from the Tower earlier that year, and was eager to prove himself to the king. Even though he was a former Yorkist, therefore, Henry still cleverly appointed him. He was also effective because he had no land or power in the north, which meant his decisions would be less partial.
What measures did Henry take to centralise his regional government?
- UNLIKE his predecessors, Henry required his Council in London to keep a close eye on activities of the provincial council.
- Members appointed by the king, not by lieutenants - secure absolute loyalty. (eg appointed William Sever - one of the most important member in Surrey's council)
Local government - what did Henry do in managing local government that was similar to Edward IV?
- He frequently chose to rely on second rank of each county's landowners when appointing JP's. (To weaken power of greater magnates, also less corruption). But Henry did it to a greater extent.
- Like Edward and Richard, Henry widened the scope of JP's responsibilities and lessened power of sheriffs. (eg. 1487 - JP's given power to grant bale to those awaiting trial).
Henry encouraged more grievances against justice to be taken to the _____ ______ or further, the ____ and his ____ ____.
Henry encouraged more grievances against justice to be taken to the Assize Judges or further, the king.
JP's could deal with basically any crime except what?
- Except treason. This was left for the councils to investigate.
- Shows the high extent to which Henry was determined to restrain and eliminate disloyalty in the kingdom. (also shows personalised and centralised government)
How many times did Henry use Parliament? What does this show?
- Only on 7 occasions.
- Limited role in Henry's government - many of its former tasks were being undertaken by Henry's royal council and Council Learned.
In 1504, what legislation did Henry pass through Parliament?
- Legislation forbidding corporations from making regulations unless they receive approval from the king first.
- Again, centralisation and personalisation of government.
Although Parliament was used _____ frequently, Henry still used it continuing its ______ role as an _______ where most ______ business was carried out. Give 2 examples of how Henry used Parliament.
- Although Parliament was used less frequently, Henry still used it continuing its traditional role as an institute where most important business was carried out.
- eg. he passed Acts of Attainder
- Used it to ratify claim to the throne in 1486