first aid rapid review step 1

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  1. Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly. CHF symptoms with no JVD, increased d dimer marker
    Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis),
  2. Achilles tendon xanthoma
    Familial hypercholesterolemia
  3. Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrom (meningococcemia)
  4. Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible jonts
    Margan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
  5. athlete with polycythemia
    erythropoeitin injeciton
  6. back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
    Pott's disease (vertebral TB)
  7. b/l hilar adenopathy, uveitis
    sarcoidosis (non-caseating granuloma)
  8. blue sclera
    OI (collagen defect Type 1)
  9. bluish line on gingiva
    Burton's line (lead poisoning)
  10. bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis, increased hat size, fractures
    Paget's disease of bone, increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, increased alkaline phosphatase
  11. bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
    aortic regurgitation
  12. cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)
    • NF type 1 (+pheochromocytoma, optic glioma)
    • NF type 2 (+b/l acoustic neuroma)
  13. Cafe-au-late spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
    McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)
  14. calf pseudohypertrophy
    muscular dystrophy (MC Duchenne's, also Becker's)
  15. "cherry red spot" on macula
    Tay Sach's (gnaglioside accumulation), or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion
  16. chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI
    Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)
  17. child uses arms to stand up from squat
    Gower's sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy: X-linked recessive deleted dystrophin gene)
  18. child with fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body
    "slapped cheeks" (erythema infectiosum/5th disease: parvovirus B19)
  19. chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
    Huntington's disease (autosomal-dominant CAG repeat expansion)
  20. chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
    McArdle's disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency)
  21. cold intolerance
  22. conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal nystagmus
    internuclear opthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; b/l in MS, unilateral in strok)
  23. continuous machinery heart murmur
    PDA (close with indomethacin, open with misoprostol, a prostaglandin)
  24. cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
    myxema (hypothyroidism, Grave's disease - pre-tibial)
  25. dark purple skin/mouth nodules
    Kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS patients, gay men, associate with HHV-8)
  26. deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation
    Kussmaul breathing (DKA)
  27. dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, death
    Pellagra - niacin (Vit B3) deficiency
  28. dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
    wet beriberi - thiamine (Vit B3) deficiency
  29. dor or cat bite resulting in infection
    Pasturella multocida - cellulitis at inoculation site
  30. dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
    Sjorgen's syndrome - autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands, older females, increased cavities
  31. dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficinecy anemia
    Plummer'Vinson syndrome, may progress to esophageal SCC
  32. elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
    Ehler's Danlos syndrome - collagen defect, usually Type III
  33. enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
    Virchow's node - abdominal metastasis, gastric CA
  34. erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, HSM, atypical T cells
    Sezary syndrome - cutaneous T-cell lymphoma or mycosis fungoides
  35. facial muscle spasm upon tapping
    Chvostek sign - hypocalcemia
  36. fat, female, forty, fertile
    cholelithiasis leading to acute cholecystitis
  37. fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
    Jarish-Herxheimer reaction - rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release
  38. fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash from head to body
    Measles - Morbillivirus - 3 Cs of measles
  39. fever, night sweats, weight loss
    TB, B symptoms of lymphoma
  40. fibrous plaques on soft tissue of penis
    Peyroine's disease - connective tissue disorder
  41. gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in a boy
    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome - HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive
  42. green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
    kayser-fleischer rings - copper accumulation from Wilson's disease
  43. hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth, feet, hands
    Peutz-Jegher's syndrome - genetic benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction, increase cancer rish
  44. HSM, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
    Gaucher's disease - glucocerebrosidase deficiency, tissue paper cytoplasm
  45. hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
    Alport's syndrom - type IV collagen mutation, can't see, can't pee, can't hear
  46. hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis - thrombophlebitis
    Trousseau's sign - adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lungs
  47. hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
    Kluver-Bucy syndrome - b/l amygdala syndrome
  48. HTN, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
    Conn's syndrome - primary hyperaldosteronism
  49. hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
    Blue bloater = chronic bronchitis, hyperplasia of mucus cells, increased Reed index d/t thick mucus layer
  50. indurated, ulcerated genital lesion
    • Nonpainful chancre - primary syphilis from Treponema pallidum
    • or
    • Painful with exudate - chancroid from Haemophilus ducreyi
  51. infant with failure to thrive, HSM, neurogeneration, cherry red spot on macula
    Niemann-Pick disease - genetic sphingomyelinas deficiency
  52. infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
    Cori's disease - debranching enzyme deficiency or von Gerke's
  53. infant with micrceophaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
    Edward's syndrome - trisomy 18
  54. jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
    Charcot's triad of ascending cholangitis
  55. keratin pearls on skin biopsy
  56. large rash with bull's eye appearance
    erythema chronicum migran's from Ixodes tick bite - Lyme disease of Borrelia
  57. lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
    epithelial hematoma from m iddle meningeal artery rupture
  58. male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
    Bruton's disease - X-linked agammaglobinemia
  59. mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
    Glanzmann's thrombasthemia - defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa
  60. multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teeth
    Gardner's syndrome subtype of FAP, associate with APC gene
  61. necrotizing vasculitis in lungs and necrotizing glomerulonepritis
    Wegener's c-anca postive and Goodpastu're syndrome's anti-basement membrane antibodies
  62. neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth, clavicle fracture
    Erb-Duchenne palsy from superior trunk (C5-C6) brachial plexus injury, waiter's tip
  63. no lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance, hypotensive
    Sheehan's syndrome from pituatary infarction
  64. nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear opthalmoplegia
  65. oscillating slow/fast breathing
    Cheyne-Stokes respirations from central apnea in CHF or increased ICP
  66. painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia
    cold agglutinin disese - autoimmune helomytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia or infectious mononucleosis by EBV, IgM antibodies
  67. painful, pale, cold fingers/toes
    Raynoud's syndrome - vasospasm in extremities
  68. painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
    Osler's nodes from infective endocarditis
  69. painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles
    Janeway lesions of infective endocarditis
  70. pain less jaundice
    cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
  71. palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain in child, hematuria
    Henoch-Schonlein purpura - IgA vasculitis affecting the skin and kidneys
  72. pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
    Wermer's syndrome of MEN I
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first aid rapid review step 1
high yield rapid review from first aid step 1
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