Chpt 23 24 & 25.txt

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pamlangley02
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143679
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Chpt 23 24 & 25.txt
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2012-03-25 14:44:27
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digestion respiratory
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Chpt 23, 24 25
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  1. the movement of air into and out of lungs:
    pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
  2. gas exchanges to and from the pulmonary circuit blood that occur in the lungs:
    external respiration (oxygen loading & carbon dioxide unloading)
  3. transport of respiratory gases between the lungs & tissue cells of the body using blood as the transort vehicle:
    transport of respiratory gases
  4. exchange of gases to & from the blood capillaries of the systemic circulation:
    internal respiration (oxygen unloading & carbon dioxide loading)
  5. air generally passes into the respiratory tract through the__ and enters the __:
    external nares (nostrils); nasal cavity
  6. increases air turbulence:
    inferior, superior and middle nasal conchae
  7. as the air passes through the nasal cavity, its warmed, moistened & filtered by the:
    nasal mucosa
  8. act as a resonance chamber in speech:
    paranasal sinuses
  9. nasal passages are seperated from the oral cavity by:
    • anteriorly - hard palate
    • posteriorly - soft palate
  10. connects the nasal & oral cavities to the larynx & esophagus:
    pharynx
  11. 3 parts of the pharynx:
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  12. lies posterior to the nasal cavity, lies above the soft palate and only serves as an air passage:
    nasopharynx
  13. lies posterior to the oral cavity, extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis of the larynx inferiorly and serves as a common conduit for food and air:
    oropharynx
  14. extends to the larynx, where the common pathway divides into the respiratory & digestive channels; accomodates both ingested food & air:
    laryngopharynx
  15. forms a lid over the larynx when we swallow; a flaplike elastic cartilage"
    epiglottis
  16. mucous membrane of the larynx; vibrate with expelled air for speech:
    vocal folds or true vocal cords
  17. slitlike passageway between the vocal folds:
    glottis
  18. inside the lungs, the primary bronchi divide into smaller & smaller branches finally becoming:
    bronchioles
  19. bronchioles have terminal branches called:
    respiratory bronchioles
  20. the continuous branching of the respiratory passageways in the lungs is often referred to as:
    respiratory tree
  21. respiratory bronchioles subdivide into:
    alveolar ducts
  22. tiny balloonlike expansions along the alveolar sacs; are composed of a single thin layer of squamous epithelium:
    alveoli
  23. the alveolar & capillary walls and their fused basement membranes form the:
    respiratory membrane
  24. gas exchange occurs between:
    alveoli & pulmonary capillaries
  25. gas exchange occurs across the respiratory membrane by:
    simple diffusion
  26. each lung is enclosed in a double-layered serous membrane sac called:
    pleura
  27. produce lubricating serous fluid that causes them to adhere closely to one another, holding the lungs to the thoracic wall & allows them to move easily against one other during the movements of breathing:
    pleural layers
  28. pulmonary ventilation consists of 2 phases:
    inspiration & expiration
  29. demonstrates the principles involved as gas flows into & out of the lungs:
    model lung
  30. thorax of the model lung:
    bottle
  31. diaphragm of the model lung:
    rubber membrane
  32. lungs of the model lungs:
    balloon
  33. measures respiratory volumes:
    spirometer
  34. parts of a wet spirometer:
    • volume indicator scale
    • drum retainer
    • floating bell
    • water tank
    • valve assembly
  35. volume of air inhaled & exhaled with each normal respiration:
    • TV or tidal volume
    • avg value: 500 mL
  36. the volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal expiration:
    • ERV or expiratory reserve volume
    • avg value: 700 - 1200 mL
  37. total exchangeable air of the lungs:
    • VC or vital capacity
    • avg value: 4500 mL
  38. volume of air that can be forcibly inhaled following a normal inspiration:
    • IRV or inspiratory reserve volume
    • avg value: 1900 - 3100 mL
  39. the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal expiratory effort:
    • RV or residual volume
    • avg value: 1200 mL
  40. provides the body with the nutrients essential for health & the organs of this system ingest, digest & absorb food & eliminate the undigested remains as feces:
    digestive system
  41. chewing, churning:
    physical or mechanical digestion
  42. enzymatic hydrolysis:
    chemical digestion
  43. digested end products then pass through the epithelial cells lining the tract into the blood to be distributed to the body cells:
    absorption
  44. 2 major groups of the digestive system:
    • alimentary canal or GI tract
    • accessory digestive organs
  45. consist of the mouth, pharynx, espophagus, stomach, small & large intestines and anus:
    alimentary canal
  46. consist of the teeth & salivary glands, gallbladder, liver and pancreas:
    accessory digestive organs
  47. 4 tunics of the GI tract:
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa
    • serosa
  48. major functions are secretion of enzymes, mucus, hormones, etc, absorption of digested foodstuffs and protection against bacterial invasion:
    mucosa (mucous membrane)
  49. major functions are nutrition and protection; has alot of blood vessels:
    submucosa
  50. major regulator of GI motility (food pushed from 1 end to another):
    muscularis externa
  51. lubricating serous fluid produced by the serosa reduces friction as the GI tract organs work & slide across one another & the cavity walls:
    serosa
  52. temporary storage region for food as well as a site for food breakdown:
    stomach
  53. churn, mix and pummel food:
    physical digestion
  54. secrete hydrocloric acid & hydrolytic enzymes:
    chemical digestion
  55. resembles a creamy mass; enters the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter:
    chyme
  56. extends from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the stomach:
    esophagus
  57. a common passageway for food, fluid & air:
    pharynx
  58. nearly all food absorption occurs in:
    the small intestine
  59. major function is to compact and propel the fecal matter toward the anus & to eliminate it from the body:
    large intestine
  60. provides a site for intestinal bacteria to manufacture some vitamins (B & K), which then absorbs into the bloodstream and reclaims most of the remaining water from undigested flood, thus conserving body water:
    large intestine
  61. initial set of teeth, appears between 6 months & 2 1/2 years:
    deciduous or milk teeth
  62. second set of teeth:
    permanent teeth
  63. a mixture of mucus, which moistens the food & helps to bind it together into a mass & a clear serous fluid containing the enzyme salivary amylase:
    saliva
  64. begins the digestion of starch:
    salivary amylase
  65. function is to produce bile; bile has no enzymes but it breaks up large fat particles into smaller ones:
    liver
  66. a small, green sac on the inferior surface of the liver; bile is stored there until needed for the digestive process:
    gallbladder
  67. produces a whole variety of hydrolytic enzymes, which it secretes in an alkaline fluid into the duodenum; its juice is very alkaline:
    pancreas
  68. large protein molecules produced by the body cells that act as a biologic catalyst:
    enzymes
  69. molecules on which proteins act:
    substrates
  70. the specimens or standards against which experimental samples are compared:
    controls
  71. glands in the stomach wall secrete gastric juice, which mixes w/food particles:
    during gastric digestion
  72. hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin:
    gastic juice
  73. at body temp (37C) & in the presence of hydrochloric acid:
    pepsin reduces proteins into amino acids
  74. enzymes trypsin & lipase:
    pancreatic juice
  75. proteins are broken down into amino acids by:
    trypsin
  76. fats are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by:
    lipase
  77. amino acids and fatty acids can be absorbed into the body through:
    the lining of the small intestine
  78. why is the water bath temp set to 37-40C?
    to simulate body temperature
  79. how does pH affect the efficiency of pepsin?
    reduces protein into amino acids
  80. what is the product of starch digestion:
    glucose
  81. diaphragm down - contracted:
    • volume increased
    • pressure decreased
    • air flows in
    • diaphragm is flat line (depressed)
  82. diaphragm up - relaxed:
    • volume decreased
    • pressure increased
    • air flows out
    • diaphragm is elevated ( dome shape)

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