ANT Exam 2

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SkyRockIt93
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143685
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ANT Exam 2
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2012-03-27 23:07:09
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Anthropology
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Review for the second exam
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  1. Human Adaption
    • Physical- how people adapt to the physical world
    • Cultural- inventing different cultural practices Ex) Harris- Jews gave up pork
  2. 5 Procurement Capacity
    • Foraging: don't grow food; natural habitat
    • Subsistance Ag: garden cultivation of a small piece of land
    • Pastoralism: domestication of animals
    • Intensive Ag: terracing, irrigation
    • Industrial Ag: mechanic and non-mechanic means to make food
  3. Foraging
    • Def: living by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants
    • used in lower populations; high mobility; Neolithic revolution (10,000 years ago)
    • Not really used in modern day
    • Subsistence Strategy: diet determined by habitat; high mobility
    • Settlement Patterns: related families form bands; flexible composition of bands; nomadic settlement (wet and dry seasons)
    • Economy: reciprocal economic system(avoid conflict; pay in goods/animals); collective ownership of property(share all goods)
    • Power and Social Control: no institutionalized power(no real gov't); informal systems of socisl contract
  4. Ju/'Hoansi
    • Depend more on gathering than on hunting
    • High mobility reflecting availability of water
    • Pay in goods and animals
    • No real gov't; one leader
  5. The Inuit/Eskimo
    • Rely on seals for food; use every part
    • Physical adaptions: stocky stature, body resistance to the cold
    • Cultural adaptations: hunting seals, food sharing, story-telling as means of socializations, sleeping together, etc.
  6. Horticulture
    • Def: subsistence/extensive ag.(tiresome)
    • Origin and Development of Ag: pop. growth; pressure on resources(able to grow more food on smaller plot of land)
    • Horticultural Cultivation Methods: slash-n-burn(or Swidden) method(burn land, ash is fertilizer); polyculture(many crops, a variety)
  7. Differences btwn Horticulture and Foraging
    • Increased Sedentism: staying in one spot, little movement
    • Increased Density: getting more food leads to an increase in ppl
    • Increase Social Complexity and Interdependence: more reliance on others; ties
  8. Difference btwn Horticulture and Intensive Ag
    • Simpler Tech
    • Lower Yield per Acre of Land: less food from land
    • More Household Self-Sufficiency: could provide for themselves
  9. Pastoralism
    • Def: animal husbandry(rely on a herd of animals)
    • Development of Pastoralism: farming/herding pattern preceded(still needed other food; rely on ag. still)
    • The Pastoral Adaption: herd diversity; Nomadic movement=horizontal migration/nomadism- move livestock over a large area; transhumance- move btwn upper land and lower land
    • Social Organization: hierarchical tribal structure- household as basic unit; clan/lineage as different levels of org; the principle of segmentary lineage(a tree diagram; come together against enemies); shifting composition of camp
    • The social symbolic value of livestock: cattle were sacred; very important
    • Integration into larger market economy
  10. The Nuer
    • Cattle is main focus of Nuer life
    • move according to where food for the cattle is
    • practice transhumance
  11. Intensive Ag
    • Def: ag. intensification
    • Methods of Intensification: irrigation, terracing, fertilizers, crop rotation, selective breeding, animal traction, storage, efficient transportation, and distribution(Foragers food is easily spoiled
    • Intensive ag. Compared to Horticulture: more advanced tech; increased productivity; more integration into market economy
  12. Social Consequences of Intensive Ag.
    • Social Changes: Urbanism- emergence of villages, towns, and cities
    • Economic stratification- bigger and smaller farms
    • Increased trade- mostly specialized; trade btwn farms and division of labor
    • Emergence of peasant farmers- land lords in control
    • Access to land: sharecropping
    • Rural responses to oppression
  13. Industrialized Ag.
    • Industrial Evolution (mid 19th century)
    • Def: intensification through science and industry (high energy)
    • Mechanization: high-energy budget
    • Nonmechanized Approaches: Green Revolution- after WWII; scientists develop new crops("miracle crops")
    • Genetically modified crops- could change resistance to animals/crops
    • 4 Industries of Ag: farming(crops); forestry(wood, paper); animal husbandry(domestication of animals); aquaculture(commercial fishing, not environmentally friendly)
  14. Economic Systems Intro
    • Economic System: production, distribution, consumption
    • Economics vs. Economic Anthro: more focused on industrialized world vs. focuses on all cultures(includes non industrialized)
    • Universalism vs. Relativism: the formalist view; the substantivist approach(stored in their culture)
  15. Modes of Production
    • Allocation of Resources: control of water and land; property relations(private property in industrialized places); technology resources(most important resource for revenue)
    • Units of Production: house-hold based(before industrailization; provides social and spiritual needs); firm-based(primary concern to make money;focused on economics terms; many people)
    • Division of Labor: gender specialization(men at work, women at home); age specialization(in US, kids don't work; in other countries they do); occupational specialization(ex- doctors specializing in a part of the body)
  16. Modes of Consumption
    • Consumption: intake(process of using up goods and $$); output(consequences of using up goods)
    • 2 Modes of Consumption: minimalism(finite # of needs and wants); consumerism(emphasize continual buying)
    • Consumption Micro-Cultures: class(upper class=more luxuries); ethnicity(different preferences); gender(ex- Puerto Rico women); age
  17. Modes of Distribution
    • Reciprocity: exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value btwn parties
    • Redistribution: form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated
    • Market Exchange: the buying and selling of goods and services with prices set by rules of supply and demand
  18. Reciprocity
    • Generalized Reciprocity: food sharing(gift giving without expecting something soon)
    • Balanced Recip: silent trade(ex) Semang collect fruit and bring to a spot. When they return they expect other goods to be there froma neighboring village); the Kula ring
    • Negative Recip: get as much as possible, or something for nothing
  19. The Trobriand Islanders
    Exchange of three things (Kula ring and yams among men, banana leaf bundles & skirts among women
  20. Redistribution
    • Patterns of Redistribution(taxes): big men/feastgivers(need wealth, and be very generous);potlatch(more given away=higher status); chiefly distribution(tribute; chief returns); bride wealth(from groom's family to bride's family)
    • Prestige Economies: a category of economic institutions which serves to distribute goods and to allocate prestige and status (potlatch; big man feast)
    • Leveling Mechanism: a practice, value, or form of social organization that evens out waelth within a society(taxation)
  21. Kawelka: Onka's Big Monka
    • Economy: pigs
    • Big man: verbal skills; giving away wealth as symbol of status
    • Marriage: polygyny as symbol of pwr as well as economic considerations
  22. Market Exchange
    • Bater and Trade: an items value could differ to several people
    • Standardized Currency: invention of money- more flexible
    • Varieties of Markets: small scale market- gets discounts(barter); globla market-a set price
    • Transition to Global Market Economy
  23. Marriage and Family Intro:
    • The Family: a social unit characterized by economic cooperation, the management of reproduction and childrearing, and common residence
    • Marriage: a series of customs formalizing the relationship btwn adult partners within the family
    • Functions of Marriage and the Family: nurturing and enculturation of children; regulation of sexual activity; regulation of sexual division of labor
  24. Marriage: an Overview
    Main Characteristics: social endorsement(needs to be approved by society); sexual union; permanence; common residence; rights and obligtions(inheritance issues)
  25. Marriage Rules
    • Incest Taboo- family
    • Exogamy(outside group) vs. Endogamy(inside group)
    • Arranged Marriage: decided on by family(parents)
    • Same Sex Marriage
    • Preferential marriage: preferred mates
  26. Incest Taboo
    • Def: the prohibition of sexual intimacy btwn ppl defined as close relatives(almost universal)
    • Explanations: natural aversion theory(biological prohibition); inbreeding theory(mutations); family disruption theory(socially based; consequences); expanding social alliances(marrying outside the group)
  27. Choice of Mate
    • Exogamy: a rule requiring marriage outside one's own social or kinship group
    • Endogamy: a rule requiring marriage within a specified social or kinship group
    • Arranged marriage: spouse chosen by family; parents have more control(India)
    • Same-Sex Marriage: can attribute to a healthy society; anthropologically accepted
  28. Preferential Marriage
    • Cross-Cousin Marriage: parallel cousins- same sex(mom's sisters' son); cross-cousins- opposite gender(mom's brothers' son)
    • Levirate: a custom whereby a man marries the widow of his dead brother
    • Sororate: a custom whereby a woman marries the husband of her deceased sister
  29. Number of Spouses
    • Monogamy: serial monogamy- the practice of having a succession of marriage partners(but only one at a time)
    • Polygamy: polygyny- the marriage of a man to 2+ women at the same time(majority practiced/preferred); Polyandry- the marriage of a woman to 2+ men at the same time(Tibet, Nepal, and India)
  30. The Tiwi
    • matrilineal descent
    • bestowal of infant girls(married from birth to death)
    • immediate remarriage of all girls
    • Elder women have more power and are respected
  31. Group Marriage/Co-Marriage
    Marriages in which several men and women have sexual access to one another
  32. Fictive Marriage
    Marriage by proxy to the symbols of someone not physically present to establish the social status of a spouse anf heirs
  33. Marriage and Economic Exchange
    • Bridewealth: transfer of wealth/good from grooms family; symbolic union
    • Bride Service: send a man to do jobs before/after marriage
    • Dowry: transfer of goods/wealth to groom's family; soc. sec. for woman
    • Reciprocal Exchange: transfer of goods and money btwn both families
  34. Forms of the Family
    • Conjugal Family: through marriage (no kids)
    • Consanguineal Family: by blood
    • Family of Orientation: where people are born
    • Family of Procreation: where ppl reproduce or adopt children of their own
    • Nuclear Family: based on marital ties
    • Extended Family: based on blood ties
  35. Residence Patterns
    • Patrilocal Residence(69%): upon marriage, live with husband's family
    • Matrilocal Residence(13%): upon marriage, live with wife's family
    • Avunculocal Residence(4%): upon marriage, move to husband's, mothers, brother
    • Ambilocal Residence(9%): get to choose
    • Neolocal Residence(5%): by yourself(U.S.)
  36. Kinship Intro:
    • Kinship: a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations (universal; larger group of people connected)
    • 3 Kinds of Relatives: consanguineal relative (blood related); affinal relative(marriage; inlaws; stepdad); fictive relative(not or marriage; adoption; godparents)
    • Functions of Kinship Systems: vertical fuction(a social continuity; passed down through generations); horizontal function(some generation; marriage to a different family)
  37. Principles of Kinship Classification
    • Generation: grandparent, parent, ego, child
    • Sex & Gender: gender sometimes the most important
    • Lineality(certain relatives traced from a single line(same gender and generation tgthr)) vs. Collaterality(more detailed)
    • Consanguineal(blood ties) vs. Affinal Kin(marriage ties)
    • Relative Age: ex) older brother, younger brother
    • Sex of the Connecting Relative: connective relative opp. sex of father
    • Social Condition: Marriage Status
    • Side of the Family: mother's or father's side(ex- family members vs. relatives)
  38. Descent Groups
    • Descent: the culturally established affiliation btwn a child and one or both parents
    • The Formation of Descent Groups: Unilineal descent group(60%; trace descent from a single side); Cognatic(Nonunilineal) descent groups(40%; trace descent in a combined fashion
  39. Unilineal Descent Groups
    • Unilineal Descent: tracing descent through a single line as compared to both sides
    • Patrilineal Descent: descent through fathers
    • Matrilineal Descent: descent through mothers
  40. Small Happiness
    • China as the largest patrilineal society
    • Reasons for male heirs: human labor; social security for elders; symbolic meaning
    • Traditional Marriage: arranged marriage; patrilocal residence
  41. The Minangkabau
    • largest matrilineal group
    • uncle-niece/nephew network
    • Inheritance of ancestral propery: only women
    • Inheritance of acquired property: only men
  42. Types of Unilineal Descent Groups
    • Lineage: membership can trace their line of descent to a common ancestor(up to 10 generations; physical evidence)
    • Clan: members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological(no physical proof)
    • Phratries: group composed of a # of related clans
    • Moieties: complementary descent groups that result from the division of a society into 2 halves(marriage; share political pwr- switch in 1/2 a year)
  43. Lineage Segmentation
    • Def: the process thst takes place within a lineage where by small subdivisions of a lineage will oppose one another in some social situations but will coalesce and become allies in other social situations
    • Ex: "I against my brother: I and my brother against my cousin: I, my brother, and my cousin against the stranger"
  44. The Corporate Nature of Unilineal Descent Groups
    • Shape a person's identity: group identity more important
    • Regulate Marriage: approval from group
    • Control Property: no individual
    • Govern the Criminal Justice System: conflicts btwn groups not individuals
  45. Cognatic (Nonunilineal) Descent Groups
    • Double Descent: the tracing of descent through both matrilineal(livestock & money) and patrilineal(land, funeral ceremony, bride wealth) links, each of which is used for different purposes(ex- Yako; both sides at same time for different purposes)
    • Ambilineal Descent: a form of descent that affiliates a person to a kin group through either the make or the female line(increase flexibility=decrease loyalties; depends on culture; ex- polynessians)
    • Bilateral Descent: sys. of descent under which individuals are equally affiliated with thier mother's and father's descent group(ex-US; at same time; higher rate of mobility)
  46. Eskimo Kinship
    • Emphasis on Nuclear Family
    • Bilateral Descent- 11%

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