Card Set Information
Unit 8 of Biology- Chemistry of Life
Compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
Compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen together
Is carbon dioxide (CO2) organic?
Is glucose (C6H12O6) organic?
What organic compounds were formed from inorganic compounds in Miller & Urey's experiment?
Why was finding amino acids in Miller & Urey's experiment important?
Because it found that organic compounds found in living things could be formed from inorganic compounds.
Single unit or one building block.
Many monomers or building blocks joined together
The process of joining monomers together to make a larger molecule (polymer)
A polymer or large molecule
Combining monomers to form polymers by removing water
Breaking down polymers into monomers by adding water
What are the four most abundant elements in living things?
Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon
WHat are four functions of carbohydrates?
Provide quick energy and structure, store food and is part of the cell membrane
one sugar (simple sugar) ex: sucrose
two sugars (simple sugar) ex: glucose
many sugars (complex carb) ex: starch
The way animals store their excess carbohydrates.
The way plants store their excess carbohydrates
complex carb that forms exoskeleton of arthropods (for structure)
Complex carb that is found in plant cell walls (for structure)
What are the building blocks (monomers) for carbohydrates?
monosaccharides (simple sugars)
What are three types of lipids?
Fats, oils, and waxes
What are the building blocks (monomers) for lipids?
Fatty acids and glycerol
Are lipids polar or nonpolar?
Do lipids mix with water?
No, because water is polar.
What are the 5 main functions of lipids?
Long term energy, make up the cell membrane, messengers, insulation, protection
What are the building blocks (monomers) of proteins?
How many amino acids are there?
What type of bond holds amino acids together?
What is another name for a protein since a protein is made of many anino acids joined together by peptide bonds?
What are 4 main functions of proteins?
Structure, enzymes, protein channels, movement
What are the building blocks (monomers) for nucleic acids?
What are two examples of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
WHat is the function of DNA?
Stores genetic information
What is the function of RNA?
Helps make proteins
What are the four main organic compounds found in living things?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
A type of lipid that is made up of 3 fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
Process that changes one set of chemicals into another
The compounds that enter the chemical reaction
the compounds that are made by the reaction
the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to srtart a reaction, thereby speeding up the reaction.
biological catalyst (found in living things) that lowers the activation energy
What happens if an enzyme is not present for a chemical reaction?
the reaction takes longer
the substance an enzyme binds with and acts on
place on the enzyme where the enzyme attaches to the substrate
What does it mean when we say an enzyme is specific?
Enzymes only work on one type of substance
Are enzymes destroyed after they attach to a substrate?
No, they can be reused on more substrate
What are two main things that affect the shape of an enzyme?
pH and temperature
What happens if the shape of an enzyme changes?
the enzyme cannot work because it cannot attach to the substrate
Measures the strength of an acid or a base and goes from 0-14
pH lower than 7.0
pH higher than 7.0
pH of 7.0
Is a pH of 2 a strong or weak acid?
is a pH of 6 a strong or weak acid?
Is a pH of 14 a strong or weak base?
is a pH of 8 a strong or weak base?
substances that help minimize changes in pH