Chemistry-Biology

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Author:
drewdisp
ID:
14373
Filename:
Chemistry-Biology
Updated:
2010-04-13 20:44:14
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Chemistry Biology
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Description:
Unit 8 of Biology- Chemistry of Life
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  1. Compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
    organic
  2. Compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen together
    inorganic
  3. Is carbon dioxide (CO2) organic?
    No
  4. Is glucose (C6H12O6) organic?
    Yes
  5. What organic compounds were formed from inorganic compounds in Miller & Urey's experiment?
    amino acids
  6. Why was finding amino acids in Miller & Urey's experiment important?
    Because it found that organic compounds found in living things could be formed from inorganic compounds.
  7. Single unit or one building block.
    monomer
  8. Many monomers or building blocks joined together
    polymer
  9. The process of joining monomers together to make a larger molecule (polymer)
    polymerization
  10. A polymer or large molecule
    macromolecule
  11. Combining monomers to form polymers by removing water
    dehydration synthesis
  12. Breaking down polymers into monomers by adding water
    hydrolysis
  13. What are the four most abundant elements in living things?
    Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon
  14. WHat are four functions of carbohydrates?
    Provide quick energy and structure, store food and is part of the cell membrane
  15. one sugar (simple sugar) ex: sucrose
    monosaccharide
  16. two sugars (simple sugar) ex: glucose
    disaccharide
  17. many sugars (complex carb) ex: starch
    plysaccharide
  18. The way animals store their excess carbohydrates.
    glycogen
  19. The way plants store their excess carbohydrates
    starch
  20. complex carb that forms exoskeleton of arthropods (for structure)
    chitin
  21. Complex carb that is found in plant cell walls (for structure)
    cellulose
  22. What are the building blocks (monomers) for carbohydrates?
    monosaccharides (simple sugars)
  23. What are three types of lipids?
    Fats, oils, and waxes
  24. What are the building blocks (monomers) for lipids?
    Fatty acids and glycerol
  25. Are lipids polar or nonpolar?
    Nonpolar
  26. Do lipids mix with water?
    No, because water is polar.
  27. What are the 5 main functions of lipids?
    Long term energy, make up the cell membrane, messengers, insulation, protection
  28. What are the building blocks (monomers) of proteins?
    amino acids
  29. How many amino acids are there?
    20
  30. What type of bond holds amino acids together?
    peptide bonds
  31. What is another name for a protein since a protein is made of many anino acids joined together by peptide bonds?
    polypeptide
  32. What are 4 main functions of proteins?
    Structure, enzymes, protein channels, movement
  33. What are the building blocks (monomers) for nucleic acids?
    Nucleotides
  34. What are two examples of nucleic acids?
    DNA and RNA
  35. WHat is the function of DNA?
    Stores genetic information
  36. What is the function of RNA?
    Helps make proteins
  37. What are the four main organic compounds found in living things?
    Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  38. A type of lipid that is made up of 3 fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
    triglyceride
  39. Process that changes one set of chemicals into another
    chemical reaction
  40. The compounds that enter the chemical reaction
    reactants
  41. the compounds that are made by the reaction
    products
  42. the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
    activation energy
  43. a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to srtart a reaction, thereby speeding up the reaction.
    catalyst
  44. biological catalyst (found in living things) that lowers the activation energy
    enzyme
  45. What happens if an enzyme is not present for a chemical reaction?
    the reaction takes longer
  46. the substance an enzyme binds with and acts on
    substrate
  47. place on the enzyme where the enzyme attaches to the substrate
    active site
  48. What does it mean when we say an enzyme is specific?
    Enzymes only work on one type of substance
  49. Are enzymes destroyed after they attach to a substrate?
    No, they can be reused on more substrate
  50. What are two main things that affect the shape of an enzyme?
    pH and temperature
  51. What happens if the shape of an enzyme changes?
    the enzyme cannot work because it cannot attach to the substrate
  52. Measures the strength of an acid or a base and goes from 0-14
    pH scale
  53. pH lower than 7.0
    acid
  54. pH higher than 7.0
    base
  55. pH of 7.0
    Neutral
  56. Is a pH of 2 a strong or weak acid?
    strong acid.
  57. is a pH of 6 a strong or weak acid?
    weak acid
  58. Is a pH of 14 a strong or weak base?
    strong base
  59. is a pH of 8 a strong or weak base?
    weak base
  60. substances that help minimize changes in pH
    buffer

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