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When was the Diet of Augsburg? And what was written there, and by whom? Why was this meeting important?
- Confession of Augsburg written by Melanchthon.
- The battle lines were drawn, and it also led to the formation of the Schmalkaldic League.
When was the League of Schmalkalden formed? Set up by whom? Who joined?
- Set up by Lutheran princes headed by Philip of Hesse
- 11 Imperial cities (eg. Strasburg and Bremen) and prince such as John of Saxony, Prince of Anhalt joined.
When does Wurtemburg become Protestant? Why was it a victory for the League of Schmalkalden?
- Ulrich was restored to the dukedom of Wurtemburg by the League, and made Protestant by the League, with financial backing from France.
- It was a victory for the League, as Charles did not try to reverse it. Also made Catholic Princes more fearful of the Protestants and more willing to support Charles.
When does Augsburg and Stransburg embrace reform in their own states?
When did Brandenburg become Protestant?
What does Luther write towards the end of the 1530's? When exactly?
- Luther writes the Schmalkalden Articles in 1538.
- Sets out mature Lutheran doctrine.
When did Ducal Saxony become Protestant?
When was Philip of Hesse's bigamy scandal? And what effect did this have?
- Hesse was ruined as a political power, since he had to plead for his life before Charles and placed himself at his mercy. It was made worse by the fact that it was Luther who advised him to marry again. (Protestants leaderless)
Give the period in which Charles was absent from Germany for the second time.
1533 - 1541
When was the First Diet of Regensburg? What happened?
- This was the last genuine attempt at compromise, but it failed. Charles now reach the decision that military force is necessary to bring Lutherans back into the Catholic Church.
- The Catholic Princes were by then also willing to support military action.
When did the Ottomans scale down its European military campaigns and proved to became a considerably lesser threat to Charles?
- Charles V now able to turn his attention back to the Protestant problem in Germany.
When does Luther die? What age is he?
- Luther dies in Eisleben in 1546
- Aged 63
When was the Second Diet of Regensburg? What was Charles' real aim in this diet?
- Charles' real aim at this diet was to pull together alliances with Maurice of Saxony and Baveria.
When was the Battle of Muhlberg? What was the outcome?
- The Imperial forces crushed the Schmalkadic League.
- However, Charles was remarkably generous after the victory - no executions, seizing of territory by Habsburgs, no levying taxes.
- Some historians say Charles had wasted this victory.
In which event after the Battle of Muhlburg did Charles attempt to impose a religious settlement but failed? When was this?
- Interim of Augsburg in 1548
- The interim document set out mostly Catholic doctrine with a few minor Protestant additions (eg. priests can marry).
- Unpopular with both Catholics and Protestants
- Seemed impossible to reunite Christendom.
By 1550, how many out of how many imperial cities were Protestant?
50 out of 85 Imperial cities were protestant
When did Maurice of Saxony lead the revolt that led to Ferdinand negotiating what?
- Maurice led a sizeable army south boosted by French aid
- The revolt forced Charles to flee in Carinthia
- and left his brother to negotiate the humiliating Treaty of Passau.
In 1552, Lutheran princes find a new ally. Who?
Henry VII of France
When was the Peace of Augsburg, and what was agreed here?
- Agreement drawn up assuming schism was permanent
- In each state, there was to be one religion (L or C) and Prince/government of state made the decision.
- No state was to force views on others, and people were allowed to move according to their religious beliefs.
- By giving Princes the power to decide, this meant that the political autonomy of the princes was effectively recognised.