BIO CELL 370 E2 C6

The flashcards below were created by user shockwave on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Early life got raw materials & energy from
    WHAT AND HOW DID THEY FORM?
    simple organic molecules dissolved in aqueous environment.


    hese molecules formed abiotically (by nonbiological chemical reactions) in primeval seas
  2. organisms depending on an external source of organic compounds are _________.
    heterotrophs
  3. T OR F ?
    Number of heterotrophs on primitive Earth was probably severely restricted initially
    TRUE
  4. organisms that can survive on CO2 as their principal carbon source are ________.
    autotrophs
  5. EARLY AUTOTROPHS Made their own reduced organic nutrients from simple inorganic molecules. NAME TWO
    CO2, H2S
  6. __________use energy stored in inorganic molecules (ammonia, H2S, nitrites) to convert CO2 to organic compounds; all are prokaryotes-bacteria
    CHEMOAUTOTROPHS
  7. _____________ sunlight is energy source; most Earth biomass made by photosynthesis
    Photoautotrophs
  8. NAME 4 PHOTOAUTOTROPHICS PROKARYOTES.
    • purple sulfur
    • non-sulfur bacteria,
    • green –sulfur bacteria
    • cyanobacteria.)
  9. NAME 4 TYPES OF PHOTOAUTROPHIC ORGANISMS
    • higher plants,
    • eukaryotic algae,
    • some flagellated protists &
    • a variety of prokaryotes (purple sulfur & non-sulfur bacteria, green –sulfur bacteria, cyanobacteria
  10. _________Capture the energy that fuels the activities of nearly every organism
    PHOTOAUTROPHIC ORGANISMS
  11. IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS, High energy electrons _____ ________ _____ to make reduced biomolecules like starches & oils
    reduce carbon skeletons
  12. EARLIEST PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS DOMINATED EARTH FOR ______ YEARS.
    2 B
  13. Earliest photosynthetic organismsnS Probably used ______ ______ via the following reaction: _______.
    • H2S ELECTRONS
    • CO2 + 2H2S + light <—> (CH2O) + H2O + 2S

    TODAY THERE LIMITED TO SULFER SPRINGS AND DEEP SEA VENTS.
  14. CYANOBACTERIA CAME ON THE SCENE WHEN?
    ABOUT 3.5 NILLION YEARS AGO
  15. cyanobacteria - produced important waste product (O2) of much consequence via _______. NAME THE FORMULA.
    CO2 + 2H2O + light <—> (CH2O) + O2
  16. CYANOBACTERIA...WHAT DOES IT USE AND WHAT IS THE WASTE PRODUCT.
    • USED H2O INSTEAD OF H2S
    • WASTE PRODUCT IS O2
  17. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND AEROBIC RESPIRATION.
    Image Upload
  18. T OR F?
    IT IS MUCH HARDER TO PULL e- FROM H20 THAN H2S
    TRUE
  19. S atom in H2S has ____ _____ ______ for its electrons than does the O atom in H2O
    much less affinity
  20. Oxygenic photosynthesis must generate very strong ______ _____as part of mechanism.
    • oxidizing agent
    • Pulls away the tightly held electrons of H2O
  21. CHROLOPLASTS ARE MAINLY LOCATED WHERE?
    WHAT ARE IT'S DIMENSIONS?
    HOW MANY PER CELL?
    mesophyll cells of leaves around the cell's central vacuole.

    Generally lens-shaped; ~2 - 4 µm wide, 5 - 10 µm long (as big as RBCs); typically 20 - 40 per cell.
  22. Generally lens-shaped; ~2 - 4 µm wide, 5 - 10 µm long (as big as RBCs); typically 20 - 40 per cell...WHAT AM I?
    CHLORPLASTS
  23. WHO DISCOVERED CHLOROPLASTS TO BE THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS SITE?
    WHAT DID HE USE?
    • Theodor Engelmann (German 1881) Illuminated green alga Spirogyra
    • Motile bacteria gather outside cell near chloroplast to use O2
  24. THE CHLOROPLAST IS LOCATED WITHIN WHAT GROUP OF CELLS?
    • PALISADE.
    • Image Upload
  25. CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE
    COMPOSED HOW?
    OUTER MEMBRANES CONTAIN WHAT?
    INNER MEMBRANE DETAIL?
    Surrounded by double membrane enclosing narrow space.

    Outer membrane contains porins - permeable to solutes up to 10,000 daltons (like mitochondria).

    Inner membrane relatively impermeable; movement across it requires transporters
  26. Flattened membranous sacs _______ arranged in stacks called________ (like stack of coins)
    • thylakoids
    • grana (like stack of coins)
  27. _______can self-assemble & have space inside _________
    • Thylakoid sacs
    • lumen
  28. NAME THE SAPCE THAT IS INSIDE OF A THYLAKOID SAC.
    LUMEN
  29. Space outside thylakoid & inside chloroplast envelope.
    • STROMA
    • contains CHO synthesis enzymes.
  30. WHERE IN THE CHLOROPLAST IS CHO SYNTHESIS ENZYMES LOCATED?
    • STROMA.
    • (Space outside thylakoid & inside chloroplast envelope )
  31. DEFINE STROMA LAMELLA OR STROMA THYLAKOIDS.
    Flattened membranous structures connect thylakoids of different grana
  32. DEINE THE STROMA DNA
    Small, double stranded circular DNAs encoding ~100 different polypeptides & prokaryote-like ribosomes, various enzymes
  33. WHERE IS THE GENETIC MATERIALS IN A CHLOROPLAST?
    IN THE STROMA
  34. ________different polypeptides involved with energy conversion.
    ____encoded by chloroplast DNA.
    • ABOUT 60
    • ABOUT 1/2
  35. ________% of chloroplast proteins encoded by nuclear DNA, made in cytosol & imported by a specialized transport machinery
    ABOUT 90%
  36. Chloroplast _____also encodes ______ & _______needed for protein synthesis in chloroplast
    • DNA
    • tRNAs & rRNAs
  37. BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE GRANA THYLAKOIDS AND STROMA THYLAKOIDS
    Image Upload
  38. THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE OF THE CHLOROPLAST IS COMPOSED OF WHAT?
    Unusual; their fluidity allows lateral protein complex diffusion.

    Relatively little phospholipid & high percentage of neutral, galactose-containing glycolipids (mono- & digalactosyldiacylglycerol).

    Fatty acids very unsaturated (several double bonds), leading to bilayer's extreme fluidity.
  39. T OR F?
    THE THYLAKOID LIPID MEMBRANE IS SEMIAUTONOMOUS & SELF-REPLICATING.
    TRUE
  40. THE THYLAKOID LIPID MEMBRANE MAY HAVE EVOLVED FROM WHAT?
    May have evolved from oxygen-producing photosynthetic prokaryote (presumably a cyanobacterium) that took up symbiotic existence inside host cell
  41. WHERE WOULD YOU GIND THIS LITTLE GEM?
    Image Upload
    IT'S PART OF THE LIPID COMPOSITION OF THE THE THYKALOID
  42. WHAT WAS THE NONPIGMENTED PRECURSER TO THE CHLOROPLAST?
    PROPLASTIDS.
  43. THYKALOID REPLICATION OCCURS HOW?
    Arise by fission from preexisting chloroplasts or their nonpigmented precursors (proplastids
  44. HOW DO YOU THINK CHLOROPLAST CAME ABOUT?
    Took up symbiotic existence within primitive, nonphotosynthetic proeukaryotic host cell
  45. Chloroplasts & photosynthetic bacteria share many basic traits....NAME 4
    • porins of outer membrane,
    • circular DNA
    • prokaryotic-type ribosomes in stroma,
    • similar photosynthetic machinery
  46. NAME THE CLASSES OF CHLOROPHYLL.
    WHAT AMKES THEM DIFERENT?
    Differ in side groups on porphyrin rings; primary photosynthetic pigments.

    • Chlorophyll a
    • Chlorophyll b
    • Chlorophyll c
    • bacteriochlorophyll
  47. _________ in all O2-producing photosynthetic organisms; missing from sulfur bacteria.
    Chlorophyll a
  48. ________in all higher plants & green algae
    Chlorophyll b
  49. ___________in brown algae, diatoms & certain protozoa
    Chlorophyll c
  50. ________ only in green & purple bacteria that do PS without O2 formation
    Bacteriochlorophyll
  51. NAME THE 2 MAIN UNITS OF THE CHLOROPHYLL a STRUCTURE
    Image Upload
  52. WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CAROTENOID?
    b-carotene; produce orange & red colors in carrots, oranges, some autumn leaves
  53. Terrestrial plants also contain ____ & _______accessory pigments
    ORANGE & RED
  54. WHAT TYPE OF BONDS ARE FOUND IN CAROTENOIDS?
    linear system of conjugated double bonds
  55. Carotenoids - absorb _______ & ____ light; reflect _______, _______ & _____ light;
    • Absorb: blue & green light;
    • reflect: orange, yellow & red light
  56. WHAT DOES B-CAROTENE LOOK LIKE?
    Image Upload
  57. WHAT IS IT?
    Act as secondary light collectors during photosynthesis & Draw excess energy from excited chlorophylls & dissipate it as heat.
    CARTENOIDS
  58. IN CARTENOIDS, USUALLY Draw excess energy from excited chlorophylls & dissipate it as heat. If not...WHAT HAPPENS?
    energy may transfer to O2 making excited, reactive singlet oxygen (1O*)
  59. Carotenoids have multiple functions, ONE IS
    THAT IT Destroys biomolecules, THAT causes cell death. GIVE EXAMPLE.
    mutant algal cells lacking carotenoids cannot survive in aerobic environments due to O2-mediated damage to photosynthetic machinery.
  60. T OR F ?
    Chlorophylls & carotenoids thus all participate in photosynthesis.
    TRUE
  61. Photosynthetic Units and Reaction Centers...WHO, WHEN AND USED WHAT?
    • Robert Emerson & William Arnold
    • (Caltech, 1932)
    • Flash short duration lights (10 µsec) & saturating intensity on alga Chlorella
  62. WHO Found that not all chlorophylls are directly involved in photosynthesis. HOW DID THEY DO IT?
    • Robert Emerson & William Arnold
    • (Caltech, 1932)
    • Flash short duration lights (10 µsec) & saturating intensity on alga Chlorella
  63. Robert Emerson & William Arnold
    NAME THEIR 2 DISCOVERIES.
    • not all chlorophylls are directly involved in photosynthesis.
    • minimal amount of light needed for maximal O2 production in one photosynthetic cycle
  64. Later shown that __________ (quanta) of light was minimum amount needed to make 1 O2
    8 photons
  65. Based on number of chlorophylls present, calculated 1 O2 molecule made/every _______ chlorophylls
    2,500
  66. ABOUT _______ times more chlorophylls than appear to be needed for photosynthesis
    300
  67. _______ or so chlorophylls act together as one photosynthetic unit in which only one member of group transfers electrons to an acceptor (Reaction center)
    300
  68. WHAT FORMS THE LIGHT HARVESTING ANTENNA UNIT?
    PIGMENTS OF THE CHLOROPHYLL.

    Absorbs photons of various wavelengths & transfers the energy (excitation energy) very rapidly to the pigment at the reaction center
  69. AT WHAT LEVEL IS E CONTENT OF THE e- IN VOLTS WHEN PHOTOLYSIS OCCURS?
    Image Upload
  70. The proton gradient established during the light-dependent reactions provides the energy required for the formation of ATP in the _______ of ________.
    chloroplast of autotrophs
  71. THE MACHERINERY OF Photophosphorylation IS ALMOST THE SAME AS WHAT?
    MITOCHONDRIA
  72. THE MACHINERY OF Photophosphorylation IS ALSMOST THE SAME AS THE MITOCHONDRIA.
    NAME. NAME 2 POINTS.
    • ATP synthase consists of a CF headpiece.
    • -Projects into the stroma and a CF base embedded in the thylakoid membrane.

    • Protons drive the formation of ATP
    • -As they move from higher concentration in the thylakoid lumen of the grana stacks
  73. UNDERSTAND THE SUMMARY OF LIGHT DEPENDANT REACRTIONS.
    Image Upload
  74. P680....PSI OR PSII?
    PSII
  75. WHERE DOES PSII OCCUR?
    Image Upload
  76. HOW DOES THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT BETWEEN PSII AND PSI?
    Image Upload
  77. P700...PSI OR PSII
    PSI
  78. WHAT PS HAS NADP+ AND FERREDOXIN?
    • PSI
    • Image Upload
  79. The movement of electrons during photosynthesis (from formation of O2) is ______ AND IS CALLED _______ ______.
    linear and called noncyclic photophosphorylation
  80. Cyclic photophosphorylation is carried out independently by _____.
    PSI
  81. IN Cyclic photophosphorylation WHAT DOES FERRIDOXIN DO?
    WHERE IS IT DONE?
    • PSI
    • FERRIDOXIN CYCLES THE e- TO THE ELECTRON DEFICIENT CENTER.
  82. IN THE PSI AND THE CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION THE electrons get passed around cyclic pathway, protons are translocated into the _____ ____ ___ ____ & ______ ___ _______.
    lumen of the thylakoid and drive ATP synthesis
  83. Simplified Scheme for Cyclic Photophosphorylation....NAME THE 5 STEPS
    Image Upload
  84. During light independent reactions...NAME 2 REACTIONS
    Chemical energy stored in NADPH and ATP is used in the synthesis of carbohydrates from CO2.

    • Carbohydrate synthesis in C3 plants.
    • -Carbon is rapidly incorporated into carbohydrates
  85. WHAT WAS THE FIRST COMPOUND TO BE IDENTIFIED IN THE DARK REACTIONS?
    The first compound to be identified was 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA)
  86. A _____ _____ intermediate in glycolysis, GIVES IT ITS NAME ___ ______
    • 3C
    • C3 PATHWAY
  87. The condensation and splitting are two activities of the same enzyme....NAME IT
    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco)
  88. a six-carbon compound that splits into two molecules of PGA...WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? WHEN DOES IT OCCUR?
    • CO2 is condensed with a five carbon compound, ribulose bis phosphate (RuBP).
    • OCCUR DURING DARK REACTIONS.
  89. IF YOU WANT TO ID THE DIFFERENT UNIT OF A CELL ( PGA, SUGARS, ALANINE, ECT) WHAT METHOD COULD YOU USE?
    • Chromatogram
    • Image Upload
  90. THE C3 PATHWAY IS ALSO KNOWN AS WHAT?
    THE CALVIN CYCLE.
  91. THE C3 PATHWAY ( CALVIN CYCLE) AS HOW MANY STEPS? NAME THEM.
    • 1. Carboxylation of RuBP and splitting of PGA 2.Reduction of PGA to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) using NADPH and ATP formed in electron transport
    • 3. Regeneration of RuBP
    • 4. The formation of carbohydrate is expensive (CO2 is highly oxidized)
    • RESULT: 12 NADPH and 18 ATP/six carbon sugar
  92. WHAT IS THE END RESULT OF C3 (CALVIN CYCLE)
    12 NADPH and 18 ATP/six carbon sugar
  93. T OR F?
    The formation of carbohydrate is expensive (CO2 is highly oxidized)
    TRUE
  94. IN WHAT CYCLE IS CO2 CONVERTED INTO CARBOHYDRATES?
    • THE C3 (CALVIN CYCLE)
    • Image Upload
  95. OVERVIEW OF THE VARIOUS STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
    Image Upload
  96. RuBP AND THE CONVERSION OF O2 OR CO2 IS KNOWN AS WHAT
    Photorespiration
  97. WHAT ARE THE REACTIONS OF Photorespiration?
    Image Upload
  98. NAME SOME C4 PLANTS.
    crabgrass, corn and sugarcane, combine CO2 with a 3 carbon compound:
  99. WHAT DOES C4 PLANT USE TO FORM 4 CARBON SKELETON?
    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
  100. NAME THE 2 CHEMICALS THE C4 PLANTS USE
    • Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
    • -Forms 4 carbon skeletons.

    • Oxaloacetate or malate
    • -Keeps CO2/O2 high enough for Rubisco to work
  101. NAME THE 2 LOCATIONS THAT C4 PLANTS USE IN THE LEAF.
  102. MESOPHYLL & BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS.
    Image Upload
  103. THE HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY IS ALSO KNOWN AS WHAT?
    THE C4 PATHWAY.
  104. WHAT IS THE FIRST STEP IN THE C4 PATHWAY?
    Attachment of CO2 to PEP by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
  105. EXAMPLE OF A C3 PLANT
    DOMESTIC GRASS
  106. Primarily C4 plants use CO2 far below the threshold of ____ ppm where photosynthesis stops for C3 plants (domestic grasses)
    50 PPM
  107. WHAT IS THE THRESHOLD OF CO2 FOR C3 PLANT TO CONDUCT PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
    50 PPM
  108. ------------- environments C4 plants acquire enough CO2 for photosynthesis while keeping their stomata closed to prevent water loss (Keep O2 low)
    HOT & DRY
  109. C4 products are transported to _____ ______ _____, where they are protected from the atmosphere
    BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS
  110. C4 products are transported to bundle sheath cells, where they are protected from the atmosphere...BUT WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CO2?
    The CO2 is cleaved off
Author:
shockwave
ID:
143741
Card Set:
BIO CELL 370 E2 C6
Updated:
2012-03-26 04:02:24
Tags:
BIO CELL 370 E2 C6
Folders:

Description:
BIO CELL 370 E2 C6 GSU 2012
Show Answers: