BIO CELL 370 E2 C6

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BIO CELL 370 E2 C6
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2012-03-26 00:02:24
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BIO CELL 370 E2 C6
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BIO CELL 370 E2 C6 GSU 2012
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  1. Early life got raw materials & energy from
    WHAT AND HOW DID THEY FORM?
    simple organic molecules dissolved in aqueous environment.


    hese molecules formed abiotically (by nonbiological chemical reactions) in primeval seas
  2. organisms depending on an external source of organic compounds are _________.
    heterotrophs
  3. T OR F ?
    Number of heterotrophs on primitive Earth was probably severely restricted initially
    TRUE
  4. organisms that can survive on CO2 as their principal carbon source are ________.
    autotrophs
  5. EARLY AUTOTROPHS Made their own reduced organic nutrients from simple inorganic molecules. NAME TWO
    CO2, H2S
  6. __________use energy stored in inorganic molecules (ammonia, H2S, nitrites) to convert CO2 to organic compounds; all are prokaryotes-bacteria
    CHEMOAUTOTROPHS
  7. _____________ sunlight is energy source; most Earth biomass made by photosynthesis
    Photoautotrophs
  8. NAME 4 PHOTOAUTOTROPHICS PROKARYOTES.
    • purple sulfur
    • non-sulfur bacteria,
    • green –sulfur bacteria
    • cyanobacteria.)
  9. NAME 4 TYPES OF PHOTOAUTROPHIC ORGANISMS
    • higher plants,
    • eukaryotic algae,
    • some flagellated protists &
    • a variety of prokaryotes (purple sulfur & non-sulfur bacteria, green –sulfur bacteria, cyanobacteria
  10. _________Capture the energy that fuels the activities of nearly every organism
    PHOTOAUTROPHIC ORGANISMS
  11. IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS, High energy electrons _____ ________ _____ to make reduced biomolecules like starches & oils
    reduce carbon skeletons
  12. EARLIEST PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS DOMINATED EARTH FOR ______ YEARS.
    2 B
  13. Earliest photosynthetic organismsnS Probably used ______ ______ via the following reaction: _______.
    • H2S ELECTRONS
    • CO2 + 2H2S + light <—> (CH2O) + H2O + 2S

    TODAY THERE LIMITED TO SULFER SPRINGS AND DEEP SEA VENTS.
  14. CYANOBACTERIA CAME ON THE SCENE WHEN?
    ABOUT 3.5 NILLION YEARS AGO
  15. cyanobacteria - produced important waste product (O2) of much consequence via _______. NAME THE FORMULA.
    CO2 + 2H2O + light <—> (CH2O) + O2
  16. CYANOBACTERIA...WHAT DOES IT USE AND WHAT IS THE WASTE PRODUCT.
    • USED H2O INSTEAD OF H2S
    • WASTE PRODUCT IS O2
  17. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND AEROBIC RESPIRATION.
  18. T OR F?
    IT IS MUCH HARDER TO PULL e- FROM H20 THAN H2S
    TRUE
  19. S atom in H2S has ____ _____ ______ for its electrons than does the O atom in H2O
    much less affinity
  20. Oxygenic photosynthesis must generate very strong ______ _____as part of mechanism.
    • oxidizing agent
    • Pulls away the tightly held electrons of H2O
  21. CHROLOPLASTS ARE MAINLY LOCATED WHERE?
    WHAT ARE IT'S DIMENSIONS?
    HOW MANY PER CELL?
    mesophyll cells of leaves around the cell's central vacuole.
  22. Generally lens-shaped; ~2 - 4 µm wide, 5 - 10 µm long (as big as RBCs); typically 20 - 40 per cell.
  23. Generally lens-shaped; ~2 - 4 µm wide, 5 - 10 µm long (as big as RBCs); typically 20 - 40 per cell...WHAT AM I?
    CHLORPLASTS
  24. WHO DISCOVERED CHLOROPLASTS TO BE THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS SITE?
    WHAT DID HE USE?
    • Theodor Engelmann (German 1881) Illuminated green alga Spirogyra
    • Motile bacteria gather outside cell near chloroplast to use O2
  25. THE CHLOROPLAST IS LOCATED WITHIN WHAT GROUP OF CELLS?
    • PALISADE.
  26. CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE
    COMPOSED HOW?
    OUTER MEMBRANES CONTAIN WHAT?
    INNER MEMBRANE DETAIL?
    Surrounded by double membrane enclosing narrow space.

    Outer membrane contains porins - permeable to solutes up to 10,000 daltons (like mitochondria).

    Inner membrane relatively impermeable; movement across it requires transporters
  27. Flattened membranous sacs _______ arranged in stacks called________ (like stack of coins)
    • thylakoids
    • grana (like stack of coins)
  28. _______can self-assemble & have space inside _________
    • Thylakoid sacs
    • lumen
  29. NAME THE SAPCE THAT IS INSIDE OF A THYLAKOID SAC.
    LUMEN
  30. Space outside thylakoid & inside chloroplast envelope.
    • STROMA
    • contains CHO synthesis enzymes.
  31. WHERE IN THE CHLOROPLAST IS CHO SYNTHESIS ENZYMES LOCATED?
    • STROMA.
    • (Space outside thylakoid & inside chloroplast envelope )
  32. DEFINE STROMA LAMELLA OR STROMA THYLAKOIDS.
    Flattened membranous structures connect thylakoids of different grana
  33. DEINE THE STROMA DNA
    Small, double stranded circular DNAs encoding ~100 different polypeptides & prokaryote-like ribosomes, various enzymes
  34. WHERE IS THE GENETIC MATERIALS IN A CHLOROPLAST?
    IN THE STROMA
  35. ________different polypeptides involved with energy conversion.
    ____encoded by chloroplast DNA.
    • ABOUT 60
    • ABOUT 1/2
  36. ________% of chloroplast proteins encoded by nuclear DNA, made in cytosol & imported by a specialized transport machinery
    ABOUT 90%
  37. Chloroplast _____also encodes ______ & _______needed for protein synthesis in chloroplast
    • DNA
    • tRNAs & rRNAs
  38. BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE GRANA THYLAKOIDS AND STROMA THYLAKOIDS
  39. THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE OF THE CHLOROPLAST IS COMPOSED OF WHAT?
    Unusual; their fluidity allows lateral protein complex diffusion.

    Relatively little phospholipid & high percentage of neutral, galactose-containing glycolipids (mono- & digalactosyldiacylglycerol).

    Fatty acids very unsaturated (several double bonds), leading to bilayer's extreme fluidity.
  40. T OR F?
    THE THYLAKOID LIPID MEMBRANE IS SEMIAUTONOMOUS & SELF-REPLICATING.
    TRUE
  41. THE THYLAKOID LIPID MEMBRANE MAY HAVE EVOLVED FROM WHAT?
    May have evolved from oxygen-producing photosynthetic prokaryote (presumably a cyanobacterium) that took up symbiotic existence inside host cell
  42. WHERE WOULD YOU GIND THIS LITTLE GEM?
    IT'S PART OF THE LIPID COMPOSITION OF THE THE THYKALOID
  43. WHAT WAS THE NONPIGMENTED PRECURSER TO THE CHLOROPLAST?
    PROPLASTIDS.
  44. THYKALOID REPLICATION OCCURS HOW?
    Arise by fission from preexisting chloroplasts or their nonpigmented precursors (proplastids
  45. HOW DO YOU THINK CHLOROPLAST CAME ABOUT?
    Took up symbiotic existence within primitive, nonphotosynthetic proeukaryotic host cell
  46. Chloroplasts & photosynthetic bacteria share many basic traits....NAME 4
    • porins of outer membrane,
    • circular DNA
    • prokaryotic-type ribosomes in stroma,
    • similar photosynthetic machinery
  47. NAME THE CLASSES OF CHLOROPHYLL.
    WHAT AMKES THEM DIFERENT?
    Differ in side groups on porphyrin rings; primary photosynthetic pigments.

    • Chlorophyll a
    • Chlorophyll b
    • Chlorophyll c
    • bacteriochlorophyll
  48. _________ in all O2-producing photosynthetic organisms; missing from sulfur bacteria.
    Chlorophyll a
  49. ________in all higher plants & green algae
    Chlorophyll b
  50. ___________in brown algae, diatoms & certain protozoa
    Chlorophyll c
  51. ________ only in green & purple bacteria that do PS without O2 formation
    Bacteriochlorophyll
  52. NAME THE 2 MAIN UNITS OF THE CHLOROPHYLL a STRUCTURE
  53. WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CAROTENOID?
    b-carotene; produce orange & red colors in carrots, oranges, some autumn leaves
  54. Terrestrial plants also contain ____ & _______accessory pigments
    ORANGE & RED
  55. WHAT TYPE OF BONDS ARE FOUND IN CAROTENOIDS?
    linear system of conjugated double bonds
  56. Carotenoids - absorb _______ & ____ light; reflect _______, _______ & _____ light;
    • Absorb: blue & green light;
    • reflect: orange, yellow & red light
  57. WHAT DOES B-CAROTENE LOOK LIKE?
  58. WHAT IS IT?
    Act as secondary light collectors during photosynthesis & Draw excess energy from excited chlorophylls & dissipate it as heat.
    CARTENOIDS
  59. IN CARTENOIDS, USUALLY Draw excess energy from excited chlorophylls & dissipate it as heat. If not...WHAT HAPPENS?
    energy may transfer to O2 making excited, reactive singlet oxygen (1O*)
  60. Carotenoids have multiple functions, ONE IS
    THAT IT Destroys biomolecules, THAT causes cell death. GIVE EXAMPLE.
    mutant algal cells lacking carotenoids cannot survive in aerobic environments due to O2-mediated damage to photosynthetic machinery.
  61. T OR F ?
    Chlorophylls & carotenoids thus all participate in photosynthesis.
    TRUE
  62. Photosynthetic Units and Reaction Centers...WHO, WHEN AND USED WHAT?
    • Robert Emerson & William Arnold
    • (Caltech, 1932)
    • Flash short duration lights (10 µsec) & saturating intensity on alga Chlorella
  63. WHO Found that not all chlorophylls are directly involved in photosynthesis. HOW DID THEY DO IT?
    • Robert Emerson & William Arnold
    • (Caltech, 1932)
    • Flash short duration lights (10 µsec) & saturating intensity on alga Chlorella
  64. Robert Emerson & William Arnold
    NAME THEIR 2 DISCOVERIES.
    • not all chlorophylls are directly involved in photosynthesis.
    • minimal amount of light needed for maximal O2 production in one photosynthetic cycle
  65. Later shown that __________ (quanta) of light was minimum amount needed to make 1 O2
    8 photons
  66. Based on number of chlorophylls present, calculated 1 O2 molecule made/every _______ chlorophylls
    2,500
  67. ABOUT _______ times more chlorophylls than appear to be needed for photosynthesis
    300
  68. _______ or so chlorophylls act together as one photosynthetic unit in which only one member of group transfers electrons to an acceptor (Reaction center)
    300
  69. WHAT FORMS THE LIGHT HARVESTING ANTENNA UNIT?
    PIGMENTS OF THE CHLOROPHYLL.

    Absorbs photons of various wavelengths & transfers the energy (excitation energy) very rapidly to the pigment at the reaction center
  70. AT WHAT LEVEL IS E CONTENT OF THE e- IN VOLTS WHEN PHOTOLYSIS OCCURS?
  71. The proton gradient established during the light-dependent reactions provides the energy required for the formation of ATP in the _______ of ________.
    chloroplast of autotrophs
  72. THE MACHERINERY OF Photophosphorylation IS ALMOST THE SAME AS WHAT?
    MITOCHONDRIA
  73. THE MACHINERY OF Photophosphorylation IS ALSMOST THE SAME AS THE MITOCHONDRIA.
    NAME. NAME 2 POINTS.
    • ATP synthase consists of a CF headpiece.
    • -Projects into the stroma and a CF base embedded in the thylakoid membrane.
  74. Protons drive the formation of ATP
    -As they move from higher concentration in the thylakoid lumen of the grana stacks
  75. UNDERSTAND THE SUMMARY OF LIGHT DEPENDANT REACRTIONS.
  76. P680....PSI OR PSII?
    PSII
  77. WHERE DOES PSII OCCUR?
  78. HOW DOES THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT BETWEEN PSII AND PSI?
  79. P700...PSI OR PSII
    PSI
  80. WHAT PS HAS NADP+ AND FERREDOXIN?
    • PSI
  81. The movement of electrons during photosynthesis (from formation of O2) is ______ AND IS CALLED _______ ______.
    linear and called noncyclic photophosphorylation
  82. Cyclic photophosphorylation is carried out independently by _____.
    PSI
  83. IN Cyclic photophosphorylation WHAT DOES FERRIDOXIN DO?
    WHERE IS IT DONE?
    • PSI
    • FERRIDOXIN CYCLES THE e- TO THE ELECTRON DEFICIENT CENTER.
  84. IN THE PSI AND THE CYCLIC PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION THE electrons get passed around cyclic pathway, protons are translocated into the _____ ____ ___ ____ & ______ ___ _______.
    lumen of the thylakoid and drive ATP synthesis
  85. Simplified Scheme for Cyclic Photophosphorylation....NAME THE 5 STEPS
  86. During light independent reactions...NAME 2 REACTIONS
    Chemical energy stored in NADPH and ATP is used in the synthesis of carbohydrates from CO2.
  87. Carbohydrate synthesis in C3 plants.
    -Carbon is rapidly incorporated into carbohydrates
  88. WHAT WAS THE FIRST COMPOUND TO BE IDENTIFIED IN THE DARK REACTIONS?
    The first compound to be identified was 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA)
  89. A _____ _____ intermediate in glycolysis, GIVES IT ITS NAME ___ ______
    • 3C
    • C3 PATHWAY
  90. The condensation and splitting are two activities of the same enzyme....NAME IT
    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco)
  91. a six-carbon compound that splits into two molecules of PGA...WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? WHEN DOES IT OCCUR?
    • CO2 is condensed with a five carbon compound, ribulose bis phosphate (RuBP).
    • OCCUR DURING DARK REACTIONS.
  92. IF YOU WANT TO ID THE DIFFERENT UNIT OF A CELL ( PGA, SUGARS, ALANINE, ECT) WHAT METHOD COULD YOU USE?
    • Chromatogram
  93. THE C3 PATHWAY IS ALSO KNOWN AS WHAT?
    THE CALVIN CYCLE.
  94. THE C3 PATHWAY ( CALVIN CYCLE) AS HOW MANY STEPS? NAME THEM.
    • 1. Carboxylation of RuBP and splitting of PGA 2.Reduction of PGA to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) using NADPH and ATP formed in electron transport
    • 3. Regeneration of RuBP
    • 4. The formation of carbohydrate is expensive (CO2 is highly oxidized)
    • RESULT: 12 NADPH and 18 ATP/six carbon sugar
  95. WHAT IS THE END RESULT OF C3 (CALVIN CYCLE)
    12 NADPH and 18 ATP/six carbon sugar
  96. T OR F?
    The formation of carbohydrate is expensive (CO2 is highly oxidized)
    TRUE
  97. IN WHAT CYCLE IS CO2 CONVERTED INTO CARBOHYDRATES?
    • THE C3 (CALVIN CYCLE)
  98. OVERVIEW OF THE VARIOUS STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
  99. RuBP AND THE CONVERSION OF O2 OR CO2 IS KNOWN AS WHAT
    Photorespiration
  100. WHAT ARE THE REACTIONS OF Photorespiration?
  101. NAME SOME C4 PLANTS.
    crabgrass, corn and sugarcane, combine CO2 with a 3 carbon compound:
  102. WHAT DOES C4 PLANT USE TO FORM 4 CARBON SKELETON?
    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
  103. NAME THE 2 CHEMICALS THE C4 PLANTS USE
    • Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
    • -Forms 4 carbon skeletons.
  104. Oxaloacetate or malate
    -Keeps CO2/O2 high enough for Rubisco to work
  105. NAME THE 2 LOCATIONS THAT C4 PLANTS USE IN THE LEAF.
  106. MESOPHYLL & BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS.
  107. THE HATCH-SLACK PATHWAY IS ALSO KNOWN AS WHAT?
    THE C4 PATHWAY.
  108. WHAT IS THE FIRST STEP IN THE C4 PATHWAY?
    Attachment of CO2 to PEP by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
  109. EXAMPLE OF A C3 PLANT
    DOMESTIC GRASS
  110. Primarily C4 plants use CO2 far below the threshold of ____ ppm where photosynthesis stops for C3 plants (domestic grasses)
    50 PPM
  111. WHAT IS THE THRESHOLD OF CO2 FOR C3 PLANT TO CONDUCT PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
    50 PPM
  112. ------------- environments C4 plants acquire enough CO2 for photosynthesis while keeping their stomata closed to prevent water loss (Keep O2 low)
    HOT & DRY
  113. C4 products are transported to _____ ______ _____, where they are protected from the atmosphere
    BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS
  114. C4 products are transported to bundle sheath cells, where they are protected from the atmosphere...BUT WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CO2?
    The CO2 is cleaved off

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