Biology Test 2 Review 2.0.txt

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  1. Define Microbiology
    The study of microbes or microorganisms
  2. Who is the father of Microbiology ?
    Louis Pasteur
  3. How did Pasteur prove biogenesis
    The Swan Neck Flask experiment
  4. What is killed in pasteurization ?
  5. What vaccine did Pasteur develop?
  6. Do bacteria have a nucleus?
  7. What shape is DNA in bacteria?
  8. What organelles do bacteria have?
    Bacteria have DNA, plasmids, and ribosomes
  9. What is the cell wall of bacteria made of?
  10. Name the Bacterial Shape: 00 00 00
  11. Name the shape: 00000000000
  12. Name the shape: 0000000
  13. Name the shape: -- -- --
  14. Name the shape: ~ ~ ~ ~
  15. List the characteristics of Gram +
    • Gram +
    • * Cell wall stains purple
    • * Thick layer surrounds cell membrane
    • * Affected by penicilin
  16. List the characteristics of Gram -.
    • Gram -
    • * Cell wall stains pink
    • * Thin layer surrounds cell membrane
    • * Affected by erythromycin
  17. What are the actions of penicilin and sulfa drugs on bacteria?
    On Gram + the penicilin disrupts cell wall synthesis. On Gram - the sulfa drugs disrupt ribosome function.
  18. What is the capsule made of and what is its function?
    The capsule is made of glycocalyx a (sugar coat). The capsule can adhere tightly to the cell wall or diffuse out into the environment. Also protect the bacteria from defenses of the host, and makes it more resistant.
  19. Describe the endospore.
    Dominant cells usually formed by bacilli and clostridium bacteria. Consists of DNA, some cytoplasm, and tough outer coating. Very resistant to conditions that would normally kill the cell. Reactivate when conditions are favorable.
  20. What is the function of the endospore? Which disease produces endospores that can last for years in the soil?
    The endospore is to protect the bacteria against conditions that would usually kill it. Anthrax is a disease that can last years in the soil.
  21. How do bacteria move?
    Bacteria use flagellum.
  22. What is the function of the pilus?
    it allows the bacteria to join together during conjugation.
  23. How do bacteria reproduce? Is this sexual or asexual reproduction?
  24. Describe conjugation in bacteria.
    the transfer of genetic material. Sex pillus joins two bacteria.
  25. How do bacteria carry out cellular respiration and how many ATP's do they generate from glucose?
    Bacteria make 40, net 38 ATP's from glucose.
  26. Define saprophyte.
    Any organism that lives on dead organic matter, as certain fungi and bacteria.
  27. What is meant by obligate and facultatie anaerobe?
    Obligate anarobes kive without O2. Facultative anarobes can ferment or go through respiration.
  28. Which eubacteria photosynthesize? What compounds are used to trap photons of light?
    Blue- green algae photosynthesize.
  29. What are pathogens?
    Pathogens are disease causing agents.
  30. Are most bacteria beneficial or pathogenic?
  31. What important role in nature do bacteria perform in the Carbon and Nitrogen cycles?
    Bacteria decompose dead organic matter, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere for photosynthesis. Four different groups cycle nitrogen from the atmosphere, to soil to plants for the production of proteins.
  32. Diagram and describe the actions of the four types of bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle.
    Image Upload
  33. What do the beneficial bacteria living in the large intestine of animals supply?
    The bacteria that live in the large intestines of animals manufacture B Vitamins and Vitamin K.
  34. What is the effect of prolonged use of antibiotics?
    Prolonged use of antibiotics can wipe out the good bacteria.
  35. What is the remedy of the effects of prolonged use of antibiotics?
    They can be replaced with sour milk products.
  36. Know if the following disease is caused by bacilli, cocci, or spirillium
  37. Cholera
    Bacilli (bacterial)
  38. Strep Throat
    Cocci (bacterial)
  39. Pneumonia
    Cocci (bacterial)
  40. Tetanus
    Bacilli (bacterial)
  41. Meningitis
    Cocci (bacterial)
  42. Syphilis
    Spirillium (bacterial)
  43. Rocky Mt. Fever
    Bacilli (bacterial)
  44. Which type of food poisoning is often lethal?
    Botulism (bacterial)
  45. How is Botulism caused?
    It is caused by improperly canned foods.
  46. What bacteria causes botulism?
    Bacillus bacteria
  47. What are the two other types of food poisoning?
    Staphylococcus and salmonella
  48. Which food poisoning out of the two: staphylococcus and salmonella is the most common?
  49. How long does cooked food need to remain out at room temperatures to develop either one of the types of food poisoning?
    It takes 2 hours for food to develop food poisoning?
  50. How long does it take to for food poisoning to develop on a hot day?
    It takes 30 minutes for food poisoning to develop on a hot day
  51. What types of food is associated with streptococcus?
    Potato salad, chicken salad, mayonnaise, meat, cream fillings, milk, and cheese
  52. What types of food are associated with salmonella?
    Eggs, unpasteurized milk, chicken, meat
Card Set:
Biology Test 2 Review 2.0.txt
2012-03-25 23:33:46
Prokaryotes Bacteria

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