Glossary Terms

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Glossary Terms
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2012-04-05 20:35:07
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Nutritional Sciences
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  1. A retrospective dietary assessment method that analyzes each food and drink consumed over the previous 24 hours
    24 hour recall
  2. An enzyme that converts aceldehyde to acetic acid
    aceldehyde dehydrogenase (aldh)
  3. A series of metabolic reactions that requires energy to make a complex molecule from simpler ones
    Anabolic pathway
  4. An ion with a net negative charge
    anion
  5. Loss of apetite in the elderly that leads to weight loss and overall physical decline
    Anorexia of aging
  6. A protein, produced by the immune system that helps fight infection.
    Antibody
  7. Having a ph greater than 7
    Basic aka alkaline
  8. Organic compound molecule made up of varying numbers of monosaccharides
    Carbohydrate
  9. Foodbourne illness caused by Clostridium botulinium
    botulism
  10. A substances that releases or binds hydrogen ions in order to resist changes in PH
    Buffer
  11. Early stage of prenatal development following conception up to the end of the eighth week of pregnancy.
    embryo
  12. The pocess by which large lipid globules are broken down and stabilized in to smaller lipid droplets.
    emulsification
  13. A human experiment in which neither the participants nor the scientists know to which group the participants have been assigned
    double blind study
  14. An alcohol produced by the chemical breakdown of sugar by yeast
    ethanol
  15. situated outside of a cell
    extracellular
  16. The first 5 days of fasting or minimal food intake beginning 24hours after the last meal
    fasting state
  17. The capacity to do work
    energy
  18. Rise in body temperature due to excess loss of body fluids associated with sweating
    heat stroke
  19. an eating disturbance characterized as an irrational fear of trying new foods
    food neophobia
  20. An insoluble protein that frms blood clots
    fibrin
  21. A hormone secreted by the endocrine cells that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice
    gastrin
  22. Chewing or grinding food with teeth to prepare for swollowing
    mastication
  23. Hormone secreted by the pancreatic B-cells in response to increased blood glucose
    Insulin
  24. The last segment of the small intestine that comes after the jejenum
    ileum
  25. Hairlike projections on the surface of enterocytes
    microvilli
  26. A complex of cholesterol, fatty acids, cells, cellular debris, and calcium that can form inside blood vessels and within vessel walls
    plaque
  27. Nitrogen containing compounds that are often added to processed meats to enhance color and flavor
    nitrites
  28. The alteration of a gene
    mutation
  29. A hormone like protein released by nerve cells
    neuropeptide
  30. the protein component of rhodopsin
    opsin
  31. A federally funded program whereby american volunteers live and work with people in underdeveloped countries
    peace corps
  32. A device made of rigid wire mesh that is threaded into atherosclerotic blood vessel to expand and provide support for a damaged artery
    stent
  33. A baby born with a gestational age of more than 42 weeks
    post term
  34. A hormone produced by the pituatary gland that stimulates the production of milk in the alveoli
    prolactin
  35. An ovum that has been fertilized by a sperm
    zygote
  36. An essential trace mineral involved in gene expression,immune function, and cell growth
    zinc
  37. A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart
    vein
  38. A taste, in addition the the four basi c taste components that imparts a savory or meat like taste
    umami
  39. The inner, less dense layer of bone containing the marrow
    trabecular bone
  40. The type of osteoporosis that occurs mostly in women caused by hormone related bone loss
    type 1 osteoporosis
  41. A growth sometimes caused by cancer
    tumor
  42. A disease that occurs in newborn infants characterized by internal bleeding from inadequate vitamin k
    VKDB Vitamin K Defiency Bleeding
  43. A group of foodbourne illnesses caused by consuming shellfish that contain marine toxins
    Shellfish Poisoning
  44. Physical indicator that can be seen by others such as pale skin and rashes
    sign
  45. Statement concerning scientifically backed health benefit associated with a food or food component
    regular health claim
  46. Tissue that specializes in movement
    muscular tissue
  47. A component of the u.s. public health service whose mission is to compile statistical information to be used in improving the health of americans NCHS
    NAtional centre for health statistics
  48. The area of the brain that controls many involuntary functions by the release of hormones and neuropeptides
    hypothalamus
  49. Organic compound used as an energy source during starvation, fasting, low carb intake diets or uncontrolled diabetes
    ketone
  50. A portion of the retina important for sight
    macula
  51. A form of PEM characterized by extreme wasting of muscle and adipose tissue
    marasmus
  52. Program that provides canned, boxed, and sometimes fresh foods directly to individuals in need
    food pantry
  53. A water soluble
  54. vitamin involved in single carbon transfer reactions needed for amino acid metabolism and DNA synthesis
    Folate
  55. Inflammation of diverticula (pouches) in the lining of the large intestine
    diverticulitis
  56. Iron containing protein complexes that combine electrons, hydrogen ions, and oxygen to form water
    cytochrome
  57. A gene that codes for the leptin receptor
    db gene
  58. Hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress that helps increase blood glucose availabiliy vis gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis
    cortisol
  59. A passive transport mechanism twhereby a substance crossed a cell membrane with the assistance of a transport protein
    facilitated diffusion
  60. The portion of the grain that contains mostly starch
    endopserm
  61. A blood vessel that carries blood to tissues
    artery
  62. A provitamin A carotenoid
    Beta Carotine
  63. A phosphate containing charged chemical structure that is a component of a phospholipid
    polar head group
  64. A branch of medicine related to cancer and its treatment
    oncology
  65. A membrane enclosed organelle that contains the genetic material DNA
    nucleus
  66. The greatest amount of bone mass a person has during his or her life
    peak bone mass
  67. A layer of tissue that lays between the mucosa and muscularis tissue layers
    submucosa
  68. Intestinal enzyme that hydrolyses sucrose into glucse and fructose
    sucrase
  69. A condition characterized by serious damage to the cornea due to vitamin A defiency that can lead to blindness
    Xerophthalamia
  70. Zinc containing 3-D structure of some proteins that allows them to regulate gene expression
    Zinc finger
  71. A water soluble vitamin involved in energy metabolism and the conversion of homocysteiing to methionine
    B12 Cobalamin
  72. The form of osteoporosis that occurs in men and comen caused by age related lifestyle factors
    Type 2 osteoporosis
  73. A genetic disorder resulting in the production of faulty HDL particles that can not take up cholesterol from cells
    Tangier Disease
  74. The layer of tissue in the GI tract that consists of at least two layers of smooth muscle
    muscularis
  75. The gene that codes for the protein leptin
    OB gene
  76. Carbohydrate made of relitively few (3-10) monosaccharides
    oligosaccharide
  77. A scale ranging from 0-14 that signifies the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
    PH scale
  78. waves of muscular contractions that move materials in the GI tract in a forward direction
    Peristalsis
  79. Dissacharide consisting of glucose and fructose found primarily in fruits and vegetables
    sucrose
  80. A relationship between two factors that is not influenced or modified by another factor
    simple relationship
  81. Manifestation of disease that cannot be seen by others such as stomach pain or loss of apetite
    Symptom
  82. The sphincter that separates the ileum from the cecum and regulates the flow of material between the small and large intestines
    ileocecal sphincter
  83. An essential trase mineral that is a cofactor for enzymes needed for bone formation and the metabolism of carbs, protein and cholesterol
    Manganese (Mn)
  84. Bacteria that reside in the large intestine
    microbiota
  85. A water soluble spherical structure formed inthe small intestine via emulsification
    micelle
  86. The fluid component of blood
    plasma
  87. An abnormal eating behavior that involces consuming nonfood substances such as dirt or clay
    pica
  88. A type of infectious pathogen that often causes foodbourne illness
    norovirus
  89. Within a cell, a structure that carries out a particular function
    organelle
  90. A substance that contains carbon carbon bonds or carbon hydrogen bonds
    organic compound
  91. A condition that occurs when a part of the brain does not recieve enough blood
    stroke
  92. A passive transport mechanism whereby a substance crosses a cell membrane without the assistance of a transport protein
    simple diffusion
  93. A condition caused by vitamin C defiency: symptoms include bleeding gums, bruising, poor wound healing and skin irritations
    scurvy
  94. A water soluble vitamin that has antioxidant functions in the body
    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  95. A substance founbd in animal foods and thought to benefit human health above and beyond the provisin of essential nutrients and energy
    zoonutrient
  96. A form of Creutsfeldt-Jakob disease that may be caused by consuming BSE contaminated foods
    variant Cruetsfeldt-Jakob disease
  97. small blood vessel that branches off from veins
    venule
  98. The level of exertion needed for cardiovascular fitness that is equivalent to 50-85% of the maximum heart rate
    Target heart rate
  99. A essential water soluble vitamin involved in energy metabolism, synthesis of DNA RNA and NADPH+H+ and nerve function
    Thiamin B1
  100. A baby born with a gestation age less than 37 weeks
    preterm
  101. The total number of people who have acondition in a given period of time
    prevalence
  102. A disordered eating pattern characterized by a cycle of daytime food restriction, excessive food intake in the evening, and night time insomnia
    Night eating syndrome
  103. A heme protein found in muscle
    myoglobin
  104. Pathalogical preoccupation with increasing muscularity
    muscle dysmorphia
  105. A publication that requires a group of scientists to read and approve a study before it is published
    peer reviewed journal
  106. The space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes
    intermembrane space
  107. The number of people who are newly diagnosed with a condition in a given period of time
    incidence
  108. In young children, a desire for a particular food
    food jag
  109. Program that prepares and serves meals to those in need
    food kitchen
  110. Metabolism, by bacteria that occurs under relitively anaerobic conditions
    ALSO
    The process whereby yeasy chemically breaks down sugars to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide
    FERMENTATION
  111. A combonation of interrelated conditions: disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and osteopenia
    female athlete triad
  112. A disease characterized by moderate bone mineralization
    osteopenia
  113. An estrogen-like phytochemical
    phytoestrogen
  114. An organ made up of fetal and maternal tissue that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus
    placenta
  115. Organic compounds found in some foods
    polyphenols
  116. A physiological response to training caused bu a disproportionate increase in plasma volume relative to the number of red blood cells
    sports anemia
  117. a form of an element that contains additional neutrons
    stable isotope
  118. Process whereby plants trap energy from the sun to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water
    photosynthesis
  119. an enzyme that contains a mineral cofactor
    metalloenzyme
  120. A cancerous growth
    malignant tumor
  121. A substance held together by chemical bonds
    molecule
  122. carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar
    monosaccharide
  123. Elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood
    hypercholesterolemia
  124. Substances released from glands or cells in response to various stimuli that exert their effect by binding to receptors on specific tissues
    hormones
  125. High blood sodium concentration
    hypernatremia
  126. An increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to and increase in cell size or number
    hypertrophy
  127. growth associated with increased cell size
    hypertrophic growth
  128. An increase in the number of cells
    hyperplasia
  129. A substrate attached to an enzymes active site
    Enzyme-substrate complex
  130. a cartilage flap that covers the trachea while swallowing
    epligottis
  131. The cause or origin of a disease
    etiology
  132. Athletic work outs that improve cardio and pulmonary function
    endurance training
  133. Producing a toxin while in the GI tract
    enterotoxigenic
  134. The number of carbons in a fatty acids backbone
    chain length
  135. The thick fluid resulting from micing food with gastric secretions in the stomach
    chyme
  136. Category of carbohydrates that includes ogliosaccharides and polysaccharides
    complex carbohydrates
  137. The portion of the large intestine that carries material from the cecum to the rectum
    colon
  138. A nonprotein component of an enzyme, often a mineral, needed for enzymes to function
    cofactor
  139. Measurments or estimates of physical aspects of the body such as height weight circumfrences and body composition
    anthropometric measurments
  140. Nutrient composed of a central carbon bonded to an amino group, carboxylic acid group, and a side chain group (r-group)
    amino acid
  141. A specialized cell that makes up adipose tissue
    apidocyte
  142. Having a PH less than 7
    acidic
  143. The cycle of cell formation and breakdown
    cell turnover
  144. exocrine cells in the gastric mucosa that produce the protein digesting enzyme pepsin
    cheif cells
  145. The main protein found in connective tissue including skin, bones, teeth, cartilage and tendons
    collagen
  146. A sensory receptor that responds to a chemical stimulus
    chemoreceptor
  147. A soft rounded mass of chewed food
    bolus
  148. Hormone released from the adrenal glands in response to stress helps increase blood glucose levels by promoting glycogenolysis
    epinephrine
  149. A form of thiamin defiency characterized by muscle loss and leg cramps
    dry beri beri
  150. The dense hard layer of bone found directly beneath the periosteum
    cortical bone (compact bone)
  151. The buildup of fluid in the interstitial spaces
    edema
  152. Removal of an amino group from an amino acid
    deamanation
  153. Discoloration and pitting of teeth caused by excessive fluoride intake
    dental fluorosis
  154. A form of iodine defiency disorder that affects babies born to iodine defient mothers
    cretinism
  155. Method for estimating body composition that cmpares weight on land to under water
    hydrostatic weighing
  156. Symptom of vitamin A defiency in which immature skin cells overproduce the protein keratin causing rough scaly skin
    hyperkeratosis
  157. A chemical reaction whereby compounds react with water
    hydrolysis
  158. monosaccharides made up of six carbon atoms
    hexoses
  159. A condition caused by the accumulation of uric acid in the joints
    gout
  160. Inorganic substance other than water that is required in the body in small amounts
    mineral
  161. A substance that covers and protects mucous membranes
    mucous
  162. A molecule (such as water) that has both positively and negatively charged portions
    polar molecule
  163. Involving the use of cells or environment that are not part of a living organism
    in vitro
  164. The onset of milk production
    lactogenesis
  165. A form of PEM often charactarized by edema in the extremeties
    Kwasiorkor
  166. Muscle cells that surround alveoli and that contract, forcing milk into the mammart ducts
    myoepithelial cells
  167. A method used to assess body composition, based n the scattering and aabsorbance of light in the near-infrared spectrum
    near-infrared interactance
  168. Tissue that specalizes in communication via neurons
    neural tissue
  169. Food that stimulates the growth of bacteria that naturally reside in the large intestine
    prebiotic food
  170. Statement concerning less well established health cbenefits that have been ascribed to a particular food or food component
    qualified health claim
  171. intermediate product formed during metabolism of carbohydrates and some amino acids
    pyruvate
  172. A protein produced in the stomach that binds to vitamin B12
    R Protein
  173. A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom tha carries a positive charge
    proton
  174. Nitrogen containing macronutrient that is made from amino acids
    protein
  175. Environmental agent that can alter normal cell growth and development causing a birth defect
    Teratogen
  176. A double double carbon bond in which the hydrogen atoms are arranged on the opposite sides of the double bond
    Trans Double Bond
  177. Amount of time between the consumption of food and the elimination as a solid waste
    transit time
  178. A major mineral important for fluid balance, muscle and nerve function, and energy metabolism
    Potassium (K)
  179. A molecule produced in a chemical reaction
    product
  180. Tubule in the kidneys that filters waste materials from the blood that are later excreted in the urine
    nephron
  181. Obese mouse with a mutation in the gene tha codes for the hormone leptin
    ob/ob mouse
  182. The loss of one or more electrons
    oxidation
  183. Corrective responses that oppose change and restore homeostasis
    negative feedback systems
  184. A molecule that does not have differently charged portions
    nonpolar molecule
  185. a substance in foods used by the body for energy, maintenance of of body structures, or regulation of chemical processes
    nutrient
  186. A bone cell that promotes bone formation
    osteoblast
  187. Chronic condition such as ulcerative colitis and chrons disease that cause inflammation of the lower GI tract
    inflammatory bowel disease
  188. The first stage of cancer in which a normal gene is transformes into a cancer forming gene (oncogene)
    initiation
  189. AN atom that has acquired an electrica charge by gaining or losing 1 or more electrons
    Ion
  190. Polysaccharide foun in plants that is not digested or absorbed in the human small intestine
    fiber
  191. A six carbon monosaccharide found mainly bonded with glucose to form the milk sugar lactose
    galactose
  192. A portion of a chromosome that codes for the promary structure of a polypeptide
    gene
  193. A string of more than 12 amino acids held together via peptide bonds
    polypeptide
  194. A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom with no electrical charge
    neutron
  195. The condition in which protein (nitrogen) intake is less than protein (nitrogen) loss by the body
    negative nitrogen balance
  196. A malformation in which the neural tissue does not form properly during fetal development
    neural tube defect
  197. The number of infant deaths (<1yr of age) per 1000 live births in a given year
    infant mortality rate
  198. A diesease resulting from selenium defiency
    keshan disease
  199. A type of cell usually an immune caell which contains large amounts of lipids
    foam cell
  200. A large epidemiologic study begin in the 1940s designed to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and risk for heart disease
    Framingham heart study
  201. A retrospective dietary assessment ethod that assesses food selection patterns ofer an extended period of time
    food frequency questionnaire
  202. A condition caused by excess alcohol consumption characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver
    fatty liver
  203. The metabolic pathway that regenerates glucose by circulating lactate from muscle to the liver where it undergoes gluconeogenesis
    cori cycle
  204. Mouse with a mutation in the gene that codes for the leptin receptor
    Db/db mouse
  205. A protein produced in the liver and smooth muscles in response to injury or infection that, when elevate, can indicate risk for cardiovascular disease
    c-reactive protein CRP
  206. Cells in the retina that are needed for vision
    cones and rods
  207. The smallest portion into which an element can be divided and still retain its properties
    atom
  208. The main artery that initially carries blood from the heart to al areas of the body except the lungs
    aorta
  209. A disease that results from thiamin defiency
    beriberi
  210. edema that occurs in the abdominal cavity
    ascites
  211. A protein present in egg whites that binds biotin, making it unavailable for absorbtion
    avadin
  212. The outermost layer of tissue covering the front of the eye
    cornea
  213. The more oxidized form of copper
    cupric ion (CU2+)
  214. A chemical reaction that results in the formation of water
    condensation
  215. A relationship that involves one or more interactions
    complex relationship
  216. Period spanning the 8th week of gestation until birth
    fetal period
  217. A type of bariatric surgery in which an adjustable, fluid filled band that is wrapped around the upper portion of the stomach dividing it into a small upper pouch and a large lower pouch
    gastric banding
  218. A food that contains an essential nutrient, phytochemical, or zoonutrient and is thought to benefit human health
    functional food
  219. The process by which food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine
    gastric emptying
  220. Fiber that is added to food to provide beneficial physiological effects
    functional fiber
  221. Measures aimed at preventing the food supply from falling victim to planned contamination
    food biosecurity
  222. AN ESSENTIAl trace mineral that acts as a cofactor for nine enzymes involved in redox reactions
    Copper CU
  223. A molecule made up of two or more different types of atoms
    compound
  224. tissue that supports connects and anchors body structures
    connective tissue
  225. Reccomended intake of a nutrient based on 2000 or 2500 kcal/day diet
    Daily Value DV
  226. Initiatives directed at reducing poverty by the transfer of money contingent upon the recievers actions
    conditional cash transfer program
  227. The temperature range between 40-14 degrees ferenheit in which pathogenic organisms grow most readily
    danger zone
  228. The first segment of the small intestine
    duodenum
  229. A heme protein complex that is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria
    cytochrome
  230. Intesinal enzyme that hydrolyzes a 1,6 glycosidic bonds
    a-dextrinase
  231. Inflamed tongue
    glossitis
  232. Invaginations of the mucosal lining of the stomach that contain specialized endocrine and exocrine cells
    gastric pits
  233. The oxidized form of iron
    Ferric iron (Fe+)
  234. A surgical procedure that reduces the size of the stomach and bypasses a segment of the small intestine so that lesser amounts of nutrients are absorbed
    gastric bypass
  235. The percentage of whole blood that is red blood cells(erythocytes)
    hematocrit
  236. A factor, other than the one of interest, that may influence the outcome of an experiment
    confounding variable
  237. Intestinal enzyme that hudrolyzes glycosidic bonds in dissacharides
    dissachridase
  238. The alteration of a proteins 3d structure by heat, acid, chemicals, enzymes, or agitation
    denaturation
  239. A high energy compound consisting of creatine and phoasphate used to generate ATP
    Creatine Phosphate (CP)
  240. A type of starch consisting of a linear (nonbranching) chain of glucose molecules.
    amylose
  241. an area on an enzyme that binds substrates in a chemical reaction
    active site
  242. A metabolite of cholesterol tha is conberted to cholecalciferol (D3) in the skin
    7-Dehydrocholesterol
  243. A protein released by nerve cells that stimulates hunger and/or decreases energy expendature
    anabolic neuropeptide
  244. A protein important in regulating fluid balance between intravascular and interstatial spaces
    albumin
  245. A major mineral important for regulating fluid balance, protein digestion int he stomach via HCL, and carbon dioxide removal by the lungs
    Chloride (Cl)
  246. A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process
    catalyst
  247. A class of drugs sometimes taken to reduce bone loss
    biophosphonates
  248. Surgical procedure performed to treat obesity
    bariatric surgery
  249. A mitochondrial enzyme that adds a phosphate to ADP to form ATP
    ATP synthase
  250. Inflammation of the mucosal membrane that lines the stomach, reducing the number of cells that produce gastric secretions
    atrophic gastritis
  251. The process in which an immature cell becomes a specific type of mature cell
    cell differentiation
  252. Amphiphatic substances made from cholesterol in the liver; a component of bile important for lipid digestion and absorbtion
    bile acids
  253. a condition in which the immune system attacks an otherwise healthy part of the body
    autoimmune disease
  254. an aggregation of specialized cell types that are similar in form and function
    tissue
  255. A condition in which muscles tighten and are unable to relax
    tetany
  256. The "turning on" of protein synthesis
    up-regulation
  257. The process by whch amino acids are linked together via peptide bonds on ribosomes, using mRNA and tRNA
    translation
  258. A lipoprotein made by the liver that contains a large amount of trigyceride; its major function is to deliver fatty acids to cells
    Very Low Density Lipoprotein VLDL
  259. A relitively non toxic nitrogen containing compound that is produced from ammonia
    urea
  260. response to high or repeated drug or alcohol exposure that results in a resuced effect
    tolerance
  261. A misshapen protein that causes other proteins to also become distorted, damaging nervous tissue
    Prion
  262. The combining of polypeptide chains with other polypeptide chains in a protein
    quaternary structure
  263. The return of previously removed materials to the blood
    reabsorbtion
  264. an constituent of DNA and RNA
    purine
  265. The inner lining of the back of the eye
    retina
  266. An association between factors in which a change in one is related to a change in the other in the opposite direction
    Negative (inverse) correlation
  267. Abnormal gene that transforms normal cells to cancer cells
    oncogene
  268. nitrogen containing chemical carcinogens that are produced from nitrites
    nitrosamines
  269. Complex carbohydrate made of many monosaccharides
    polysaccharide
  270. Overconsumption of a nutrient resulting in dangerous (toxic) effects
    nutritonal toxicity
  271. The time between when infection occurs and signs and symptoms appear
    incubation period
  272. the mid section of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
    jejunum
  273. A curvature of the upper spine caused by osteoporosis
    kyphosis (dowagers hump)
  274. Maximum number of years an individual of a particular species has remained alive
    lifespan
  275. a food preservation process that applies radiant energy to foods to kill bacteria
    irridation
  276. The first time a female menstuates
    menarche
  277. a fluid found in lymphatic cells
    lymph
  278. The cavity inside a tubular structure in the body
    lumen
  279. A six carbon monosaccharide found in fruits and veggies also called levulose
    fructose
  280. A protein important for iron absorbtion and storage in the body
    ferritin
  281. The first four hours after a meal
    Fed State (postprandial period)
  282. A portion of a cytochrome that codes for the primary structure of a polypeptide
    gene
  283. A form of iodine defiency that causes an enlarged thyroid gland in children and adults
    goiter
  284. low blood potassium concentration
    hypokalemia
  285. The gel like matrix inside cells but outside of organelles
    cytoplasm
  286. A stage in the life cycle of parasites
    cyst
  287. A condition that occurs when food moves too rapidly from the stomach into the small intestine
    dumping syndrome
  288. Small blood vessel that branches off from the arteries
    arteriole
  289. Reoccuring episodes of consuming large amounts of foods within a short period of time NOT followed by purging
    Binge Eating Disorder BED
  290. An energy requiring mechanism by which some substances cross cell membranes
    active transport
  291. A common configuration that makes up many proteins secondary structures
    a-helix
  292. The precursor of Angiotensin II
    ANgiotensin I
  293. The mineral matrix of bones and teeth
    Hydroxapatite
  294. the portion of a grain that contains most of the vitamins and minerals
    germ
  295. The reduced form of iron
    ferrous iron (Fe2+)
  296. The form of folate commonly used in vitamin supplements and food fortification
    folic acid
  297. Chemical reactions that take place simultaneously often involving the oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another
    coupled reactions
  298. An element or variable in our surroundings over which we may or may not have control (such as pollution or temperature)
    environmental factor
  299. difficulty swallowing resulting from an injury or disease
    dysphagia
  300. The "turning off" of protein regulation
    down regulation
  301. A procedure in which a healthy blood vessel obtained from the leg,arm, chest, or abdomen is used to bypass blood from a diseased or blocked cornary artery to a healthy one
    coronary bypass surgery
  302. A partial breakdown product formed during starch digestion consisting of varying numbers of glucose units
    dextrin
  303. A visual image produced using ultrasound waves of the hearts structure and movement
    echocardiogram
  304. A disease caused by riboflavin defiency
    ariboflavinosis
  305. The series of chemical reactions that breaks down fatty acids to molecules of acetyl CoA
    Beta Oxidation
  306. A fluid made by the liver and stored and released from the gallbladder that contains bile salts, cholesterol, water, bile pigments
    bile
  307. The sequence of amino acids that make up a single polypeptide chain
    primary structure
  308. The period of time (4-24h after meal) when no dietary nutrients are being absorbed
    postabsorbative state
  309. A constituent of DNA and RNA
    pyramidine
  310. A unit of measure usef to describe the combined amount of preformed vitamin a and provitamin a carotenoids in food
    retinol activity equivalent (RAE)
  311. Dietary fibre capable of being dissolved in water
    soluble fibre
  312. A substance that dissolves in a solvent
    solute
  313. The active form of folate
    tetrahydrofolate (THF)
  314. A fatty acid that contains at least one carbon carbon double bond in its backbone
    unsaturated fatty acid
  315. Iron that is not attached to a heme group
    nonheme iron
  316. The science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support processes required for life
    nutrition
  317. When a changei n one cariable is related to a change in another variable
    correlation (aka association)
  318. A group of ppl, animals, or cell that does not recieve experimental treatment
    control group
  319. A long chain polyunsaturated w-6 fatty acid produced from linoleic acid
    arachadonic acid
  320. Consumption of five or more drinks in males and four or more drinks in females with the intent to become intoxicated
    binge drinking
  321. Dental caries that occurs in infants and children who are given bottles at bedtime that contain carbohydrate containing beverages such as milk or juice
    baby bottle tooth decay
  322. Energy expended to sustain metabolic activities related to basic vital body functions such as respiration, muscle tone, and nerve function
    basal metabolism
  323. Compound or condition that causes cancer
    carcinogen
  324. A dietary pattern emphasizing fruits, veggies, and low fat dairy products designed to lower blood pressure
    DASH Diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  325. A procedure in which the hearts electrical activity is recorded
    electrocardiogram
  326. Substances such as salt that dissolve or dissociate into ions when put in water
    electrolytes
  327. A chronic inflammatory conditin that usually effects the ileum and the first portion of the large intesine
    Crohns disease
  328. A common configuration that makes up many proteins secondary structures
    Beta folded sheet
  329. The most active form of vitamin E
    A-tocopherol
  330. A growth that may or may not have minimal physiological consewuences but does not invade the surrounding tissue or metastasize
    benign tumor
  331. A public education program developed to reduce foodbourne bacterial illness
    FightBAC
  332. The process of selective removal of metabolic waste products from the blood
    filtration
  333. Slow muscular movements that move the colonic contents back and fourth to help compact the feces
    haustral contractions
  334. A less severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome resulting from maternal consumption of alcohol while pregnant
    feta alcohol effect FAE
  335. An inherited element or variable in our lives that cannot be altered
    genetic factor
  336. A protein found in cereal grains such as wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats
    gluten
  337. Dietary fibre that is incapable of being dissolved in water
    insoluble fibre
  338. protein found on the surface of certain cell membranes that bind insulin
    insulin receptor
  339. A substance that accepts an amino acid group from an amino acid in the process of transamination
    keto acid
  340. The most abundant form of iodine in the body
    Iodide (I-)
  341. A lipid composed of a glycerol bonded to a polar head group and a fatty acid; final product of phospholipid digestion
    lypophospholipid
  342. AN infant that weighs less than 2500g 5lb 8oz at birth
    low birth weight
  343. the breakdown of triglycerides in to fatty acids and glycerol
    lipolysis
  344. The number of illnesses om a given period of time
    morbidity rate
  345. Region toward the back of the mouth that is the shared space between the oral and nasal cavities
    pharnyx
  346. A hormone produced in the pituatary gland that stimulaes the movement of milk in to the mammary ducts
    oxytocin
  347. A broad spectrum of academic and social disciplines related to nutrition
    nutritional sciences
  348. The study of how nutrition and genetics influence health together
    nutrigenomics
  349. Pancreatic secretions that contain bicarbonate and enzymes needed for digestion
    pancreatic juice
  350. A protein produced by exocrine cells in the gastric pits of the stomach needed for b12 absorbtion
    intrinsic factor
  351. Special proteins embedded in the surface of lipoproteins
    apoproteins (apolipoproteins)
  352. Energy expended for basal metabolism per hour expressed as kcal per hr
    BMR
  353. A condition characterized by unregulated cell division or inadequate cell death
    cancer
  354. The pouch that marks the first section of the large intestine
    cecum
  355. A cloudy growth that develops on the lens of the eye causing impaired vision
    cataract
  356. An ion with a net positive charge
    cation
  357. A unit of measurment used to describe the amount of bioavailable folate in a food or supplement
    dietary folate equivalent DFE
  358. The more reduced form of copper
    cuprous ion (CU1+)
  359. An enzyme that splits creatine phosphate to generate creatine and inorganic phosphare (P1)
    creatine phosphokinase
  360. The use of altered genes to enhance health
    gene therapy
  361. A coenzyme form of riboflavin
    flavin mononucleotide
  362. The metabolic pathway that splits glucose into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate
    glycolysis
  363. an iron storing protein
    hemosiderin
  364. AN experiment in which something is altered or changed to determine its effect on something else
    intervention study
  365. A spherical particle made of varying amounts of triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and proteins
    lipoprotein
  366. intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose
    lactase
  367. a nitrogen containing chemical used to make lightweight plastic objects
    melamine
  368. Death of a fetus within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
    miscarriage
  369. An inert (nonliving) substance in food that causes illness
    noninfectious agent of foodbourne illness
  370. hormonal changes that precede menopause
    perimenopausal
  371. A lipoprotein particle (LDL) with lipids or proteins that have been oxidized by free radicals
    Oxidized LDL
  372. Excess weight for a given height
    overweight
  373. Athletic workouts that increase muscle growth and strength
    strength training
  374. Blood vessel that transports oxygen poor bloood from the right side of the heart to the lungs
    pulmonary artery
  375. People who experience cycles of fasting followed by bingeing
    restrained eaters
  376. category of carbs consisting of mono or dissacharides
    simple carbohydrate
  377. A defiency disease resulting from a lack of vitamin D in young children characterized by deformed bones esp in the legs
    rickets
  378. An essential trace mineral needed for proper insulin function
    chromium Cr
  379. The process by which blood clots are formed
    coagulation
  380. The total amount of bone mineral in the body
    bone mass
  381. cells that produce and release their secretions into ducts
    exocrine cells
  382. carbohydrate consisting of two monosaccharides bonded together
    dissacharide
  383. abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
    hypoglycemia
  384. A complex protein composed of four iron containing heme groups and four protein subunits needed for oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in the body
    hemoglobin
  385. abnormally high levels of blood glucose
    hyperglycemia
  386. A concept that emphasizes not consuming too much of a particular food
    moderation
  387. Dark green feces like mattter that collects in the intestine of an unborn baby
    meconium
  388. A hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue that helps maintain body weight
    leptin
  389. Cancer causing compounds that can be formed when meat is grilled
    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  390. The phenomenon in which there is an apparent effect of the treatment because the individual expects or believes it will work
    placebo effect
  391. a molecule that enters a chemical reaction
    substrate
  392. The energy required to raise the temperature of a substance
    specific heat
  393. The portion of an amino acids structure that distinguishes it among other amino acids
    R group
  394. AN enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds
    protease
  395. An inactive protein made by the liver that is converted by renin into angiotensin I
    Angiotensinogen
  396. a strand of DNA in a cells nucleus
    chromosome
  397. the first intermediate eproduct in the citric acid cycle formed when acetyl-CoA joins with oxalacetate
    citrate
  398. The absorbative surface of the small intestine made up of thousands of microvilli found on enterocytes
    brush border
  399. COndition characterized by high blood insulin
    hyperinsulinemia
  400. An essential trace mineral that is a cofactor for enzymes needed for amino acid and purine metabolism
    molybdenum (Mo)
  401. A genetic abonormality resulting in decreased absorbtion of dietary zinc
    acrodermititis enteropathica
  402. A severe and potentially life threatening alergic reaction
    Anaphylaxis
  403. A lipoprotein made in the enterocyte that transports large lipids away fromt he small intesine in the lymph
    chylomicron
  404. A water soluble vitamin involved in energy metabolism and the regulation of gene expression
    Biotin (B7)
  405. Low blood glucose that occurs when the pancreas releases excess insulin regardless of food intake
    fasting hypoglycemia
  406. Alterations in gene expression that do not involve changes in dna sequence
    epigenetics
  407. A lipid consisting of a chain of carbons with a methyl (-CH3) group on one end and a carboxylic acid group (-COOH) on the other
    fatty acid
  408. Indicates the number and types of atoms in a formula
    molecular formula
  409. The production and release of milk
    lactation
  410. An essential trace mineral that is a component of the thyroid hormones
    Iodine (I)
  411. The inner compartment of the mitochondrion
    mitochondrial matrix
  412. questions asked to assess overall health
    medical history
  413. An alteration of a gene that is present in at least 1% of the population
    polymorphism
  414. Delayed or slowed growth caused by chronic undernutrition
    stunted growth
  415. A component in retina that consists of the protein opsin and the vitamin cis retinal; needed for night vision
    rhodopsin
  416. weakening of the bones caused by excessive fluoride intake
    skeletal fluorosis
  417. An energy requiring mechanism whereby large molecules move into or out of cells by an enclosed vesicle
    vesicular active transport
  418. An enzyme that catalyzed the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
    thrombin
  419. AN enzyme found mostly in the liver that metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde
    Alcohol Dehydrogenase ADH
  420. Hormone produced in the pituatary gland and released during periods of low blood volume; stimulates the kidneys to decrease urine production; thus conserving water
    Antidiuretic hormone ADH (vasopressin)
  421. A grass roots movemebt that emphasizes purchasing foods grown processed and distributed locally
    buy local buy fresh campaign
  422. The outer layer of the grain that contains the most fiber
    bran
  423. A major mineral found in the skeleton and needed for blood clotting, muscle and nerve function, and energy metabolism
    calcium Ca
  424. Causing bloody diarrhea
    enterohemorrhagic
  425. The amount of calories that can still be eaten without promoting weight gain after all the essentail nutrients have been consumed
    discretionary calorie allowance
  426. Elevated levels of lipids in the blood
    Hyperlipidemia
  427. when a solution has a large amount of solutes diluted in it
    high osmotic pressure
  428. An organism (plant or animal) made by genetic engineering
    Genetically modified organism GMO
  429. the stage of prenatal development from the 8th wk of pregnancy through birth
    fetus
  430. rise in body temperature that occurs when the body has trouble dissipating heat
    heat exhaustion
  431. physical exertion that causes elevation in breathing sweating and heart rate
    moderate intensity activity
  432. membrane bound protein that binds LDLs causing them to be taken up and dismanteled
    LDL receptor
  433. an autoimmune disease caused by B12 defiency due to lack of intrinsic factor
    pernicious anemia
  434. a disease caused by a niacin or tryptophan defiency
    pellagra
  435. teh situation in which a person consumes the required amount of a nutrient ot meet physiological needs
    nutritional adequacy
  436. Adipose tissue found directly beneath the skin
    Subcutaneous adipose tissue SCAT
  437. a secretion released into the mouth by the salivary glands ; moistens food and starts the process of digestion
    saliva
  438. An enzyme produced in the kidneys in response to low blood pressure; converts angiotensin to angiotensin I
    renin
  439. Self induced vomiting and or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, and or enemas
    purging
  440. small finger-like projections that cover the inner surface of the small intestine
    villi
  441. a type of inflammatory bowel disease that causes chronic inflammation of the colon
    ulcerative colitis
  442. The less active form of thyroid hormone; contains four atoms of iodine
    thyroxine (T4)
  443. The oxidized form of the coenzyme that is able to accept two electrons and two hydrogen ions forming FADH2
    Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide FAD
  444. A tubular passageway that runs from the mouth to the anus that includes several organs that participate in the process of digestion
    Gastrointestinal Tract (GI) aka digestive tract
  445. The amount of bone mineral per unit volume
    bone mineral density
  446. the early stage of embryonic development
    blastocyst
  447. Average intake required to maintain energy balance in healthy individuals based on sex age physical activity level weight and height
    Estimated Energy Requirment EER
  448. An essential trace mineral needed for amino acid and purine metabolism
    Molybdenum (Mo)
  449. A form of vitamin K produced comercially
    Menadione
  450. A statistical prediction of the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a specific age
    life expectancy
  451. A term that encompasses habitual, excessive intakes of clcohol that lead to negative physical, legal, or social consequences
    alcohol use disorders
  452. A system that connects local food growers to local consumers such as that food "bundles" are purchased on a weekly or monthly basis
    Community Supported agriculture CSA
  453. Federal legislation aimed to ensure the continues safety of the U.S. food supply from intentional harm by terrorists
    Bioterrorism act
  454. the transfer of an inorganic phosphate (Pi) group to ADP to form ATP
    substrate phosphorylation
  455. Adipose tissue deposited between organs in the abdomen
    visceral adipose tissue VAT
  456. The highes level of chronic intake of a nutrient thought not to be detrimental to health
    Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL
  457. substances released by organs that make up the digestive system that facilitate the process of digestion
    GI secretions aka digestive juices
  458. hormone secreted by the pancreatic a-cells in response to decreased blood glucose
    glucagon
  459. a substance that binds compounds in the gi tract making them unavailable for absorbtion
    chelator
  460. A form of vesicular active transport whereby intracellular cell products are enclosed in a vesicle and the contents of the vesicle are released to the outside of the cell
    exocytosis
  461. enzyme poduced in the stomach that hydrolyzes ester bonds between fatty acids and glycerol molecules
    gastric lipase
  462. a fatal disease in humans caused by a genetic mutation or surgical contamination with prions
    creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  463. neurons located within the submucosa and muscularis layers of the digestive tract
    enteric nervous system
  464. A fatty acid that contains more than one carbon carbon double bond in its backbone
    polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA
  465. The numerous folds of the mucosal lining of the small intestine
    plica circulares
  466. a naturally occuring compound in some foods that can be used as a food addative to prevent discoloration and bacterial growth
    sulfite
  467. inflamation of the mucous membrane of the mouth
    stomatitis
  468. Dietary reccomendations developed by the USDA based on categorizing foods into food groups
    USDA food guides
  469. A protein important for iron transport in the blood
    transferrin
  470. A form of vitamin K produced by bacteria
    menaquinone
  471. enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose into two glucose molecules
    maltase
  472. A lymphatic vessel found in an intestinal villus
    lacteal
  473. A measure of energy expendature obtained by assessing heat loss
    direct calorimetry
  474. A compound formed in starchy foods when heated to high temperatures
    acrylamide
  475. the formation of scar tissue in the liver caused by chronic alcohol abuse
    cirrhosis
  476. The outward bulging of a blood vessel
    Aneurysm
  477. A toxic compound produced by cerain moulds the grow on peanuts, some grains, and soybeans
    aflatoxin
  478. An amphibolic pathway that oxidized acetyl-CoA to yield carbon dioxide, NADH+H+, FADH2 and ATP via substrate phosphorylation
    citric acid cycle
  479. The protein that transports copper in the blood
    ceruloplasmin
  480. The soft spongy inner part of the bone that makes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
    bone marrow
  481. A device used to measure the amount of energy in a food
    bomb calorimeter
  482. The aount of a nutrient that meets the physiological requirments of half the healthy population of similar individuals
    Estimated Average Requirment EAR
  483. A procedure used to examine the lining of the upper GI tract (esophagus, stomach)
    endoscopy
  484. Water that contains stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen atoms
    doubly labeled water
  485. A lipid made of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids
    diglyceride
  486. A condition in which carotenoids accumulate in the skin causing the skin to become yellow-orange
    hypercarotenemia
  487. Hormones secreted by the mucosal lining of the gi tract that regulate GI motiity and secretion
    GI hormones
  488. A nonessentail trace mineral that strengthens bones and teeth
    fluoride (F-)
  489. Iron that is a component of a heme group; heme iron includes hemoglobin in blood, myoglobin in muscles, and cytochromes in mitochondria
    heme iron
  490. formation of glycogen
    glycogenesis
  491. Cellular organelles involved in generating energy ATP
    mitochondria
  492. Physical activity that causes a mild increase in breathing sweating and heart rate
    low intensity activity
  493. Dissacharide consisting of glucose and galactose; produced by mammary glands
    lactose
  494. A trace mineral needed for oxygen and carbon dioxide transport, energy metabolism, removal of free radicals, and synthesis of DNA
    Iron Fe
  495. amino acids that can be used to make ketones
    ketogenic amino acids
  496. AN unidentified compound found in meat that increases the absorbtion of non-heme iron
    meat factor
  497. An association between factors in which a change in one is related to a similar change in the other
    positive correlation
  498. An enzyme needed for protein digestion
    pepsin
  499. The end of a fatty acid with the methyl (-CH3) group
    Omega (w) end
  500. Energy expended for spontaneous movement such as fidgeting and maintaining posture
    Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
  501. The transfer of nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine into and out of the enterocyte
    nutrient absorbtion
  502. A lipid composed of a glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a polar head group
    phospholipid
  503. A type of lipid with a distinctive multi-ring structure; a common example is cholesterol
    sterol
  504. The state in which hunger is satasfied and a person feels they have had enough to eat
    satiety
  505. The lower portion of th elarge intestine between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal
    rectum
  506. A form of neural tube defect in which the spine does not properly form
    spina bifida
  507. A water soluble vitamin involved int he metabolism of proteins and amino acids, the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hemoglobin, glycogenolysis, and regulation of steroid hormone function
    Vitamin B6
  508. Protein found on cell membranes that binds transferrin allowing the cell to take up iron
    transferrin receptor
  509. Physical exertion that causes profound increases in breating sweating and heart rate
    vigorous intensity activity
  510. The more active form of thyroid hormone; contains three atoms of iodine
    triidothyronine (T3)
  511. A type of glycosidic bond between two monosaccharides that is in a downward direction
    alpha (a) glycosidic bond
  512. Pain in the region of the heart caused by a portion of the heart muscle recieving inadequate amounts of blood
    angina pectoris
  513. organic molecule, often derived from vitamins, needed fr enzymes to function
    coenzyme
  514. The process by which older and damaged bone is removed and replaced with new bone
    bone remodelling (bone turnover)
  515. A study in which data are collected form a group of individuals who are not asked to change their behaviors in any way
    epidemologic study
  516. a PURE SUBSTANCE MADE UP OF ONLY ONE TYPE OF ATOM
    element
  517. A toxic agent produced by an organism after it enters the GI tract
    enteric (intestinal) toxin
  518. Cells that produce and relese hormones in the blood
    endocrine cells
  519. A copper containing enzyme needed in the electron transport chain
    cytochrome c oxidase
  520. Severe metabolic condition resulting from the accumulation of ketones in the blood due to diabetes
    diabetic ketoacidosis
  521. A genetic abnormality resulting in increased absorbtion of iron in the intestine
    hereditary hemochromatosis
  522. Compounds found in some vegetables that decrease iodine utilization by the thyroid gland
    goitrogens
  523. A decrease in the number of red blood cells per volume caused by plasma volume expansion
    hemodilution
  524. Chemical bond formed by condensation of two monosaccharides
    glycosidic bond
  525. A medical procedure that uses a machine to filter waste products from the blood and to restore proper fluid balance
    hemodialysys
  526. A rating system used to catagoreize foods relative to their glycemic responses
    Glycemic Index
  527. A six carbon monosaccharide produced in plants by photosynthesis
    glucose
  528. A compound that is converted to methionine in a folate and vitamin B12 requiring coupled reaction
    homocysteine
  529. A form of RNA involved in gene transcription
    messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA
  530. A chronic disease that results from deterioration of the retina
    macular degeneration
  531. A "fake" treatment given to the control group that cannot be destinguished from the actual treatment
    placebo
  532. The final product in the citric acid cycle which becomes the substrate for the first reaction in this pathway
    oxalacetate
  533. The bodys adaptive response when challenged by physical exertion
    overload principle
  534. The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction
    stroke volume
  535. A circular muscle that regulates the flow of fod between the stomach and duodenum
    pyloric sphincter
  536. A measure of the alcohol content of distilled liquor
    proof
  537. Folding of a polypeptide chain because of interactions among the R-groups of the amino acids
    tertiary structure
  538. A shift in the countrys population from primarily rural to urban regions
    urbanization
  539. An inactive precursor of an enzyme
    proenzyme
  540. The movement of nutrients into the blood following the catalysis or breakdown of a tissue
    resorbtion
  541. The coenzyme form of B6
    pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
  542. The condition in which protein (nitrogen) intake equals protein loss by the body
    nitrogen balance
  543. A fatty acid in which the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbons from the methyl or omega (w) end
    Omega 3 fatty acid
  544. The relative ratio of nutrients in a food in comparison to total calories
    Nutrient density
  545. A form of thiamin defiency that occurs in infants breastfed by thiamin defient mothers
    infantile beriberi
  546. A contaigous illness caused by a pathogen such as bacteria,virus, or parasite
    infectious disease
  547. In the body, amino acids that are immediately available to cells for protein synthesis and other purposes
    labile amino acid pool
  548. Behavioral component of our lives over which we may or may not have control (diet, tobacco use)
    lifestyle factor
  549. Tabulated information concerning the nutrient and energy contents of food
    food composition table
  550. A thick layer of mucus that protects mucosal lining of the stomach from the acidic gastric juice
    gastric mucosal barrier
  551. the branch of science and medicine that focuses on health issues related to aging
    gerontology
  552. Biological catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions that break chemicaal bonds by the addition of water (hydrolysis) resulting in the breakdown of large molecules into smaller components
    digestive enzymes
  553. tolerance to one substance that causes tolerance to other similar substances
    cross-tolerance
  554. A series of chemical reactions that transfer electron and hydrogen ions from NADH+H+ and FADH2 along protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane ultimately producing ATP
    Electron transport chain
  555. Weighing between the 10th and 90th percentile for weight for gestational age at birth
    APropriate for gestational age AGA
  556. The normal process by which a cell leaves the cell cycle and dies; programed cell death
    apoptosis
  557. The hardening and narrowing of blood vessels caused by buildup of fatty deposits and inflammation in the vessel walls
    atherosclerosis
  558. irregular heartbeat
    cardiac arythmia
  559. A condition in which a person loses lean body mass
    cachexia
  560. The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of obesity
    bariatrics
  561. Medical condition characterized by a lack of insulin or impaired insulin utilization that results in elevated blood glucose levels
    diabetes mellitus
  562. When the relationship between two factors is influenced or modified by another factor
    interaction
  563. A broad spectrum of conditions caused by inadequate iodine
    iodine defiency disorders
  564. conditin characterized by the inability of insulin receptors to respond to the hormone insulin
    insulin resistance
  565. When a solution has a small amount of solutes in it
    low osmotic pressure
  566. organic substance that is relitively insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents (macronutrient)
    lipid
  567. an essential w-6 fatty acid
    linoleic acid
  568. A lipid made of a glycerol bonded to a single fatty acid
    monoglyceride
  569. A fatty acid having 8-12 carbon atoms in its backbone
    medium chain fatty acid
  570. A poison produced by ocean algae
    marine toxin
  571. A method used to assess body composition by passing xray beams thru the body
    DEXA Dual energy xry absorptometry
  572. An anarobic pathway that uses ADP and creatine phosphate to generate ATP
    ATPCP pathway
  573. Energy expended by basal metabolism over 24hours
    basal energy expendature BEE
  574. The toxin produced by red tide causing algae which, when consumed, cause shellfish poisoning
    brevetoxin
  575. Type of glycosidic bond between two monosaccardies that is in an upward direction
    Beta glycosidic bond
  576. Components of the body such as fat, lean mass (muscle), water and minerals
    body composition
  577. A term used to describe all the B-vitamins
    Beta (B) complex vitamins
  578. Energy exerted to adapt to change in the environment or to physiological conditions
    adaptive thermogenesis
  579. A gneetic (inherited) disease in which a defective chloride transporter results in the inability of the body to transport chloride out of the cells
    cystic fibrosis
  580. A theory suggesing that conditions during gestation can alter risk for chronic diseases later in life
    developmental origins of adult health and disease
  581. The process whereby solid waste (feces) is formed and expelled from the body
    egestion
  582. A process used the make a concentrated alcoholic beverage bu condensing and collecting alcohol vapours
    distillation
  583. The phase of digestion stimulated by the arrival of food to the stomach characterized by increased GI motility and the release of GI secretions
    gastric phase
  584. A blood vessel that circulates blood to the liver from the GI tract
    hepatic portal bein
  585. Condition resulting from excessive ketones in the blood
    ketosis
  586. A response to cellular injury that is characterized by capillary dialation, white blood cell infiltration, release of immune factors, redness, heat, and pain.
    inflammation
  587. A sensory receptor that responds to pressure, stretching, or a mechanical stimulus
    mechanoreceptor
  588. A pathogen in food that causes illness and can be passed or transmitted from one animal or person to another
    infectious agent of foodbourne illness
  589. Involving the study of natural phenomenon in a living organism
    in vivo
  590. Federslly funded programs that provide free or subsidized nutritious meals to school age children living in low income households
    National School lunch and breakfAST programs
  591. A unit of measure that describes the niacin and or tryptophan content in food
    niacinequivalent
  592. A carotenoid that cannot be converted to vitamin A
    Nonprovitamin A carotenoid
  593. A fatty acid in which the first double bond is located between the sixth and sevents carbon from the methyl or omega (w) end
    Omega 6 fatty acid
  594. Inflammation of the pancreas
    pancreatitis
  595. The breakdown of proteins into peptides or amino acids
    proteolysis
  596. A lifestyle, environmental, or genetic factor related to a persons chance of developing a disease
    risk factor
  597. Folds that line the inner stomach wall
    rugae
  598. A protein that contains selenomethionine instead of sulfur containing methionine
    selenoprotein
  599. A "mini stroke" that is caused by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the brain
    transient ischemic heart attack (TIA)
  600. A set of heart healthy diet reccomendations put fourth by the National Cholesterol Education Program
    Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes TLC diet
  601. A form of thiamin defiency characterized by severe edema
    wet beri beri
  602. The coenzyme form of thiamin that has two phosphate groups
    thiamin pyrophosphate TPP
  603. A governmental agency that monitors the nations health in order to prevent disease outbreaks
    US centers for disease control and prevenntion CDC
  604. A federally funded epidemiologic study begun in the 1970's to assess trends in diet and health in the US population
    Nationa Health and Nutrition Examination SUrvey NHANES
  605. A person who conducts and or evaluates nutrition related research
    nutritional scientist
  606. The process by which minerals are added to cartilage ultimately resulting in bone formation
    ossification
  607. A substance that does not contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
    inorganic compound
  608. A rise in ketone levels in the blood, causing the ph of the blood to decrease
    ketoacidosis
  609. The movement of milk through the mammary ducts toward the nipple
    let down
  610. A condition that typically affects the lower GI tract causing abdominal pain, muscle spasms, diarrhea, and constipation
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  611. A condition caused by the weakening of the gastroesophageal sphiincter which allows gastric juices to reflux into the esophagus causing irritation to the mucosal lining
    gastroesophageal reflux disease GERD
  612. AN iron containing enzyme that helps stabilize free radicals
    cytochrome p450
  613. Product intended to supplement the diet and that contains vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, or other plant derived substances or a multitude of other food derived compounds
    dietary supplement
  614. A set of four types of nutrient intake reference standards used to assess and plan dietart intake; these include EAR, RDA's,AI and UL
    Dietary reference intakes DRI's
  615. A form of vesicular active transport whereby the cell membrane surrounds extra-cellular substances and releases them into the cytoplasm
    endocytosis
  616. A circular muscle that regulates the flow of food between the esophagus and the stomach; also called lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter
    gastroesophageal sphincter
  617. Mixing and propulsive movements of the gastrointestinal tract caused by contraction and relaxation of the muscularis
    GI motility
  618. A lipoprotein made primarily by the liver that circulates in the blood to collect excess cholesterol from cells
    high density lipoprotein HDL
  619. A condition in which elevated circulating vitamin A levels result in signs and symproms of toxicity
    Hypermitaminosis A
  620. The particular DNA contained in a persons cells
    genetic makeup (genotype)
  621. The end of a fatty acid with the carboxlic acid (-COOH)group
    alpha end
  622. The active form of vitamin D in the body produced in the kidneys from 25-(OH)D3
    1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2)D3)
  623. The structure remaining after the amino group has been removed from an amino acid
    a-ketoacid
  624. The nitrogen containing component of an amino acid
    Amino group (-NH2)
  625. A concept used by the USDA for Americans that emphasizes eating apropriate amounts of food from each food group
    balance or proportionality
  626. The cell membrane that faces away from the lumen in the GI tract and toward the submucosa
    basolateral membrane
  627. An enzyme produced in the pancreas that cleaves fatty acids from cholesteryl esters
    bile salt-dependant cholesteryl ester hydrolase
  628. The soft, nonmineralized precursor of bone
    cartilage
  629. biologically active compounds synthesized from arachidonic acid and EPA
    eicosanoids
  630. Condition in the large intestine characterized by the presence of pouches that form along the intestinal wall
    diverticular disease or diverticulosis
  631. A category of eating disorders that inclof the diaudes some but not all of the diagnostic criteria for anorexia/ and or bulemia nervosa
    EDNOS eating disorders not otherwise specified
  632. A long-chain polyunsaturated w-3 fatty acid produced from linolenic acid
    docosahexaenoic acid DHA
  633. Genetic abnormality caused by a defiency or abscence of one or more enzymes needed for a metabolic pathway to function properly
    inherited metabolic disease
  634. A measurment of energy expendature obtained by assessing oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production
    indirect calorimetry
  635. An essential w-3 fatty acid
    linolenic acid
  636. A series of interrelated enzyme catalyzed chemical reactions that take place in cells
    metabolic pathway
  637. A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom with no electrical charge
    neutron
  638. FDA regulated phrase or words that can be included on a foods packaging to describe its nutrient content; based on a 2000kcal diet
    nutrient content claim
  639. Enzyme released from the pancreas that digests starch by hydrolyzing a-1,4 glycosidic bonds
    pancreatic a-amylase
  640. A lipoprotein that delivers cholesterol to cells
    low density lipoprotein LDL
  641. Glucose transporters that require insulin to function
    insulin-responsive glucose transporter
  642. metabolic pathway that leads to the production of ketones
    ketogenesis
  643. An infant who is above the 90th percentile for weight for gestational age at birth
    large for gestational age LGA
  644. the metabolic processes that result in fatty acid and ultimitely triglyceride synthesis
    lipogenesis
  645. The epreading of cancer cells to other parts of the body via the blood or lymph
    metastasis
  646. A product formed before a metabolic pathway reaches completion, often serving as a substrate in the next chemical reaction
    intermediate product
  647. A lipoprotein that results from the loss of fatty acids from a VLDL; IDL's are ultimately converted to LDL's
    Intermediate Density Lipoprotein
  648. an enzyme that hydrolyzes the ester bond between a fatty acid and a glycerol in a triglyceride molecule
    lipoprotein lipase
  649. The phase of digestion when chyme enters the small intestine, characterized by both a decrease in gastric motility and secretion of gastric juice
    intestinal phase
  650. The number of deaths in a given period of time
    mortality rate
  651. A disordered eating pattern characterized by eatingwhile asleep without any recollction of having done so
    nocturnal sleep-related eating disorder SRED
  652. Movment of watr molcules from the region of lower concntration to that of a higher solute concentration, until equilibrium is reached
    osmosis
  653. An inherited disease in which th body cant convert phenylalanine into tyrosine
    phenylketonuria PKU
  654. a chemical bond that joins amino acids
    peptide bond
  655. The oxidized form of the coenzyme that is able to accept two electrons and two hydrogen ions, forming NADPH+H
    NADP+ Nicatinomide adnine dinucleotide phosphate
  656. The health of a person as it relates to how well his or her diet meets that persons individual nutrient requirments
    nutritional status
  657. The chemical reactions that link the oxidation of NADH+H+ and FADH2 to the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP and water
    oxidative phosphorylation
  658. A bone cell that promotes bone breakdown
    osteoclast
  659. An enzyme produced in the pancreas that hydrolyzes ester bonds between fatty acids and glycerol molecules
    pancreatic lipase
  660. Softening of the bones in adults that can be due to a Vitamin D defiencu
    osteomalacia
  661. The lowest intake level of a nutrient that supports basic physiological functions and promotes optimal health
    nutrient requirement
  662. A condition in which protein (nitrogen) intake is greater that protein (nitrogen) loss in the body
    positive nitrogen balance
  663. When a researcher influence the results of a study
    researcher bias
  664. Weight re-gain that often follows successful weight loss
    rebound weight gain
  665. The balance between protein degradation and protein synthesis in the body
    protein turnover
  666. An organelle associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm involved in gene translation
    ribosome
  667. The process of aging during which function diminishes
    senesence
  668. The gain of one or more electrons
    reduction
  669. an antioxidiant found in the skin of red grapes that is abundant in red wine
    reservatol
  670. A hormone, secreted by the duodenum that stimulates the release of sodium bicarbonate and enzymes from the pancreas
    secretin
  671. Very small (single cell) organisms that are sometimes parasites
    protozoa
  672. Poisonous substance produced by microbes while they are in a food (prior to ingestion)
    preformed toxin
  673. Energy expended for the digestion, absorbtion, and metabolism of nutrients
    thermic effect of food TEF
  674. A measure of iron status that relates to the total number of free (unbound) iron-binding sites on transferrin
    total iron-binding capacity TIBC
  675. A fatty acid comtaining at least one trans double bond
    trans fatty acid
  676. A multifaceted disease resulting from vitamin a defiency
    VADD Vitamin A Defiency DIsorder
  677. Inactive proenzymes produced in the pancreas and released into the small intestine in response to CCK
    trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase
  678. a lipid composed of a glycerol bonded to three fatty acids
    triglyceride
  679. AN intermediate product made during the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholecalciferol(D3) in the skin
    Previtamin D3 precalciferol
  680. Low blood glucose that occurs when the pancreas releases too much insulin after eating carbohydrate rich foods
    reactive hypoglycemia aka: ( idiopathic postprandial hypoglycemia)
  681. Poor nutritional status caused by factors such as illness
    secondary malnutririon
  682. Process by which HDL's remove cholesterol from nonhepatic (non-liver) tissue for transport back to the liver
    reverse cholesterol transport
  683. A carotenoid that can be converted to vitamin A
    provitamin a caroteniod
  684. a specific strain of a larger class of organism
    serotype
  685. The oxidized form of the coenzyme that is able to accept two electrons and two hydrogen ions forming NADH+H+
    NAD Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
  686. Plant and animal foods that have been grown, harvested, and processed without conventional pesticides, fertilizers, growth promoters, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation
    organic foods
  687. The shift from undernutrition to overnutrition or unbalanced nutrition that often occurs simultaneously with the industrialization of society
    nutrition transition
  688. A water soluble vitamin involved in energy metabolism, hemoglobin synthesis, and phospholipid synthesis
    pantothenic acid (B5)
  689. An essential water-soluble vitamin involved in energy metabolism, electron transport chain, synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, metabolism of Vitamin C and folate, glucose homeostasis, and cholesterol metabolism
    niacin (vitamin b3)
  690. Laboratory analysis of biological samples such as blood, urine... used in nutritional assessment
    biochemical measurment
  691. Brightly colored compounds found in some foods; structures similar to that of vitamin a
    Carotenoids
  692. a method used to assess body composition based on measuring the bodys electrical conductivity
    bioelectrical impedance
  693. A transport protein made in enterocytes that assists in calcium absorbtion, synthesis is stimulated by vitamin D
    calbindin
  694. A chemical used in the body when it needs to perform work
    atp adenosine triphosphate
  695. A procedure in which a patient recieves an injection of dye that allows x-rays of blood vessels in the heart to be seen
    angiogram
  696. A type of starch consisting of highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules
    amylopectin
  697. An inactive form of vitamin d thatis made from cholecalciferol in the liver
    25-dehydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D3)
  698. A hormone secreted by adipose tissue that appears to be involved in energy homeostasis; also appears to promote sensitivity and supress inflammation
    adiponectin
  699. Sores occuring on the outsides and corners of the lips
    chilosis
  700. A chemical used in the production of many plastic items including baby bottles
    bisphenol A BPA
  701. A long-chain, polyunsaturated w-3 datty acid produced from linolenic acid
    eicosapentoaenoic acid EPA
  702. decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide due to rupturing of red blood cells
    hemolytic anemia
  703. a medical device used to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood
    glucometer
  704. low blood sodium concentration
    hyponatremia
  705. the lining of the gi tract that is made up of epithelial cells; also called mucosal lining or brush border
    mucosa
  706. A circulatory system made up of vessels and lymph that flows from organs and tissues, drains excess fluid from spaces that surround cells, picks up dietary fats from the digestive tract, and plays a role in immune function
    lymphatic system
  707. the form of vitamin K found in foods
    phylloquinone
  708. connective tissue that encloses the GI tract
    serosa
  709. Physical activities that overload specific groups of muscles to make them work harder
    resistance training
  710. a muscular band that narrows aand opening between organs and the GI tract
    sphincter
  711. A mixture of two or more substances that are uniformly dispersed
    solution
  712. nonprotein component of a protein that is part of the quaternary structure
    prosthetic group
  713. A fatty acid having <8 carbon atoms in its backbone
    short chain fatty acids
  714. a form of thiamin with three phosphate groups
    thiamintriphosphate TPP
  715. Accumulation of body fat in the abdominal region
    central obesity
  716. A hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to low blood sodium concentration (hyponatremia) and angiotensin II
    aldosterone
  717. family interaction characterized by a lack of cohesiveness and little parental involvement
    chaotic families
  718. Enzyme produced by enterocytes that aids in the final steps of digestion
    brush border enzyme
  719. Tissue that forms a protective layer on bodily surfaces and lines internal organs, ducts, and cavities
    epithelial tissue
  720. an amino acid that can be converted to gluose via gluconeogenesis
    glucogenic amino acid
  721. A condition that occurs when the heart muscle does not recieve enough blood
    heart disease aka coronary heart disease
  722. A condition in which red blood cells are large and immature.. caused by the inability of the cell to mature and divide apropriately; can be due to folate defiency or b12 defiency
    megaloglastic, macrocytic anemia
  723. cell organelles associated with endplasmic reticula
    microsomes
  724. the inactive form (proenzyme) of pepsin
    pepsinogen
  725. Energy expended for resting metabolism over a 24hour period
    resting energy expendature REE
  726. food or dietary supplement that contains live bacteria
    probiotic food
  727. A major mineral important for regulating fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction
    sodium (Na)
  728. A hormone made from cholesterol
    steroid hormone
  729. A hormone produced in the pituatary gland that stimulates uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland
    thyroid stimulating hormone TSH
  730. Active enzymes involved in protein digestion in the small intestine
    trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidase
  731. A form of RNA in the cytoplasm involved in gene translation
    tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid
  732. steps used by scientists to explain observations
    scientific method
  733. proteins that carry retinol in the blood
    retinol-binding protein and transthyretin
  734. type of dietary assessment that assesses present food and beverage intake
    prospective dietary assessment
  735. condition that results when the heart muscle weakens in response to heavy alcohol consumption
    alcoholic cardiomyopathy
  736. AN inactive form of folate
    5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl THF)
  737. nutrient intake of healthy populations that appears to support adequate nutritional status; established when RDA's can not be determined
    Adequate Intake Level AI
  738. inflammation of the liver caused by chronic alcohol abuse
    alcoholic hepatitis
  739. A measurment in a biological sample such as blood or urine that reflects a nutrients function
    biological marker (biomarker)
  740. blood vessels with thin walls which allow for the exchange of materials between blood and tissues
    capillaries
  741. A hormone produced in the thyroid gland in response to high blood calcium levels
    calcitonin
  742. A subatomic particle that orbits around the nucleus of an atom that carries a negative charge
    electron
  743. Synthesis of glucose from non-carb sources
    gluconeogenesis
  744. Elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood
    hyperglyceridemia
  745. AN essential mineral that is needed in amounts less than 100mg/day
    major mineral
  746. Enzymes that cleave fatty acids from glycerol backbones, as in triglycerides, ohospholipids, and cholestryl esters
    lipases
  747. An organism that, during part of its life cycle, must live within or on another organism without benefiting its host
    parasite
  748. The publication in which a scientific finding was first pubslished
    primary (information) source
  749. The average intake of a nurtient thought to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%)healthy peopr in a particular physiological state and age
    Reccomended Dietary Allowance RDA
  750. Diabetes that results from other diseases, medication
    , or medical conditions
    secondary diabetes
  751. A chemical compound consisting of a sterol molecule bonded to a fatty acid via an esther linkage
    sterol ester
  752. The transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to another organic compound (a-ketoacid) to form a different amino acid
    transamination
  753. Sensors that monitor conditions and changes in the GI tract
    sensory receptors
  754. An essential water-soluble vitamin involved ini energy metabolism, the synthesis of a variety of vitamins, nerve function, and protection of lipids
    Riboflavin B2
  755. The second stage of cancer in which the initiated cell begins to replicate itself, forming a tumor
    promotion
  756. The division of the cardiovascular system that begins and ends at the heart and delviers blood to all the organs except the lungs
    systemic circulation
  757. The protein that transports B12 in the blood
    transcobalamin
  758. The process by which mRNA is made using DNA as a template
    transcription
  759. poor nutritional status caused strictly by inadequate diet
    primary malnutrition
  760. The third stage of cancer in which tumor cells rapidly divide and invade surrounding tissues
    progression
  761. A barrier that allows spassage of some, but not all, molecules across it
    semipermeable membrane
  762. Energy expended for resting metabolism per hour that is assessed under less stringent conditions than is BMR
    Resting Metabolic Rate RMR
  763. A term used to describe all forms of vitamin A
    Retinoid (preformed vitamin A)
  764. A copper containing enzyme that reduces the superoxcide free radical to form hydrogen peroxide
    superoxide dismutase
  765. A hormone produced in the parathyroid glands that stimulates the conversion of 250(OH)D3 to 1,25(OH)2D3 in the kidneys
    parathyroid hormone PTH
  766. A fatty acid having >12 carbon atoms in its backbone
    long chain fatty acid
  767. A fatty acid that contains one carbon-carbon double bond in its backbone
    monounsaturated fatty acid MUFA
  768. A group of selenoprotein enzymes that have redox functions in the body
    glutathione peroxidases
  769. Cancer-causing compounds that can be formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures
    heterocyclic amines
  770. The stage of development that extends from conception through the 8th week of pregnancy
    embryonic period
  771. A technique used by some athletes to increase glycogen stores in mucles by combining a certain workout intensity with a level of carbohydrate intake
    carbohydrate loading
  772. A sign of vitamin A defiency characterized by white spots on the eye; caused by buildup of dead cells and secretions
    Bitots spots
  773. a carbon-carbon double bond in which the hydrogen atoms are arranged on the same side of the double bond
    cis double bond
  774. The primary metabolic pathway that chemically breaks down alcohol in the liver
    alcohol dehydrogenase pathway
  775. A cluster of milk producing cells that make up the mammary glands
    alveolus (alveoli) pl
  776. A unit of measurment that describes the level of alcohol in the blood
    blood alcohol concentration BAC
  777. A nitrogen-containing compound needed for fatty acid transport across membranes; may be conditionally essential in infancy
    carnitine
  778. Metabolic pathway that generates intermediate products that can be used for both catabolism and anabolism
    amphibolic pathway
  779. The lipoprotein particle that remains after a chylomicron has lost most of its fatty acids
    chylomicron remnant
  780. A fatal disease in cattle caused by ingesting prions
    bovoine spongiform encephalopathy BSE (mad cow disease)
  781. having both non polar (non charged) and polar (charged) portions
    amphiphatic
  782. The fortification of a select group of foods (rice, flour, bread or rolls, farina, pasta, cornmeal, corn grits) with FDA specified levels of thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate, and iron
    enrichment
  783. The attractive force between atoms that are formed by the transfer or sharing of electrons
    chemical bonds
  784. A protein derived from angiotensin I in the lungs; stimulates aldosterone release
    Angiotensin II
  785. Self-monitoring of the bodys response to physical activity based on changes in heart rate, breating rate, sweating, and muscle fatigue
    Borg Scale Of Percieved Exertion
  786. A water-soluble compound used by the body to synthesize acetylcholine (a neuro transmitter) and a variety of phospholipids needed for cell membrane structure; considered a conditionally essential nutrient
    choline
  787. A protein hormone produced by cattle and used in the dairy industry to enhance milk production
    bovine somatotrophin bST (bovine growth hormone)
  788. The form of vitamin D found in plant foods and vitamin D fortified foods
    ergocalciferol Vitamin D2
  789. proteind that assist in the transport of glucose moleculed across cell membranes
    glucose transporters
  790. A bacterium residing in the GI tract that causes peptic ulcers
    H. pylori Helicobacter pylori
  791. Maximum volume of oxygen that can be delivered to tissues per unit of time
    maximal oxygen consumption VO2 max
  792. an enzyme produced in the salivary glands that hydrolyzes ester bonds between fatty acids and glycerol molecules
    lingual lipase
  793. Exocrine cells within the gastric mucosa that secrete Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
    parietal cells
  794. Phenomenon in which ccertain ocean algae grow profusely, causing reddish discoloration of the water
    red tide
  795. A clotting factor (protein) that is converted to the enzyme thrombin
    prothrombin
  796. A federally funded program that assists families in making nutritious food purchases in a targeted at risk population
    Special Supplemental Nutrition Program For Women Infants And Children WIC
  797. An autoimmune response to the protein gluten that damages the absorbtive surface of the small intestine; also called gluten sensitive enteropathy
    celiac disease
  798. A metabolic reaction in which a bicarbonate subunit (HCO3) is added to a molecule
    carboxylation reaction
  799. The breakdown of liver and muscle glycogen into glucose
    glycogenolysis
  800. A rating system used to categorize foods that takes into account the glycemic index as well as the amount of carbohydrate typically found in a single serving of the food
    glycemic load GL
  801. An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds that attach fatty acids to the glycerol molecule; mobilizes fatty acids from adippose tissue
    hormone-sensitive lipase
  802. A food that is either an incomplete protein source or one that has low amino acid bioavailability
    low quality protein source
  803. A major mineral needed for stabalizing enzymes and ATP and as a cofactor for many enzymes
    magnesium Mg
  804. A major mineral needed for cell membranes, bone and tooth structure, DNA, RNA, ATP, lipid transport and a variety of reactions in the body that require phosphorylation
    Phosphrous P
  805. Chemical reactions that take place simultaneously whereby one molecule gives up one or more electrons (is oxidized) while the other molecule recieves one or more electrons (is reduced)
    redox reactions
  806. A computerized database that allows access to approximately 11million biomedical journal citations
    PubMed
  807. An energy requiring mechanism whereby a substance moves from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration, requiring the assistance of a carrier transport protein
    carrier-mediated active transport
  808. Growth associated with an increase in cell number
    hyperplastic growth
  809. The change in blood glucose following ingestion of a specific food
    glycemic response
  810. A partial breakdown product formed during amylopectin digestion that contains three to four glucose molecules and an 1-1,6 glycosidic bond
    limit dextrin
  811. An essential amino acid in the lowest concentration in an incomplete protein source
    limiting amino acid
  812. Condition chatracterized by an abnormal metabolic profile, abdominal body fat, and insulin resitance
    metabolic syndrome
  813. An enzyme produced in the pancreas that hydrolyzes fatty acids from phospholipids
    phospholipase A2
  814. Enzyme released from the salivary glands that digests starch by hydrolyzing a 1,4 glycosidic bonds
    salivary a-amylase
  815. Blood vessel that transports oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the heart
    pulmonary vein
  816. A protein released by nerve cells that inhibits hunger and or stimulates energy expendature
    catabolic neuropeptide
  817. A series of metabolic reactions that breaks down a complex molecule into simpler ones, often releasing energy in the process
    catabolic pathway
  818. The phenomenon occuring in the United States in which the proportion of elderly individuals in the population is increasing with time
    graying of america
  819. Phenomenon in which study results are influenced by an unintentional alteration of behavior by the study participants
    hawthorne effect
  820. A high-energy compound similar to ATP
    guanosine triphosphate
  821. medication typically containing estrogen and progesterone, sometimes taken by women after having their ovaries removed or after menopause
    HRT Hormone Replacement Therapy
  822. A federally developed document that provides overall health objectives for the nation
    healthy people 2010
  823. A pathway used to metabolize alcohol when it is present in large amounts
    microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system MEOS
  824. An often life-threatening condition in ehivh blood flow to some or all of the heart muscle is completely blocked
    heart attack (myocardial infarction)
  825. When an alteration in one variable causes a change in another variable
    cause and effect relationship
  826. The form of vitamin D in animal foods and made by the human body
    cholecalciferol D3
  827. A food safety protocol used to decrease contamination of foods during processing
    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points HACCP system
  828. Dissacharide consisting of two glucose molecules bonded togeher; formed during the chemical breakdown of starch
    maltose
  829. The outer covering of bone consisting of blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue
    periosteum
  830. a fatty acid that contains only carbon carbon single bonds in its backbone
    saturated fatty acid
  831. The division of the cardiovascular system that circulates deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and oxygenater blood from the lungs back to the heart
    pulmonary circulation
  832. Protein defiency accompanied by inadequate intake of protein and often other essential nutrients as well
    protein energy malnutrition PEM
  833. The amino acid methionine that has been altered to contain selenium instead of sulfur
    selenomethionine
  834. A group of eicosanoids involved in regulation of blood pressure, there are both omega 3 and 6 prostagladins having somewhat opposite effects
    prostagladin
  835. The ability of the circulatory and the respiratory systems to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles during sustained physical activity
    cardiovascular fitness
  836. A non-infectious disease that develops slowly and persists over time
    chronic degenerative disease
  837. Structure that transports milk from the secretory cells toward the nipple
    mammary duct
  838. An irritation or erosion of the mucosal lining in the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus
    peptic ulcer
  839. AN infant who is below the 10th percentile for weight for gestational age at birth
    SGA small for gestational age
  840. Time shortly before and after conception
    periconceptional period
  841. A dietary pattern originating from the region surrounding the medeterannean Sea that is related to lower risk for CVD
    Mediterranean diet
  842. the process by which cells grow, mature, replicate their DNA, and divide
    cell cycle
  843. A hormone, produced by the duodenum, that stimulates the release of enzymes from the pancreas aand stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile
    CCK cholcystoknin
  844. A protein in the enterocyte that regulates zinc absorbtion and elimination
    metallothionine
  845. A food preservation process that subjects food to heat to kill bacteria, yeasts, and molds
    pasteurization
  846. The first step in protein synthesis in which the cell recieves a signal to produce a protein. Note that this term is also used for a variety of other processes (aside from protein synthesis) within the cell
    cell signalling
  847. A substance found in plants and thought to benefit health above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and energy
    phytochemical/phytonutrient
  848. Sterol made by plants
    phytosterol
  849. Folding of a protein because of weak bonds that form between elements of the amino acid backbone (not R groups)
    secondary structure
  850. A phospholipid that contains choline as its polar head group; commonly added to foods as an emulsifying agent
    phosphatidylcholine aka lecithin
  851. The part of the nervous system made of the brain and spinal cord
    centran nervous system
  852. A form of chromium taken as an ergogenic aid by some athletes
    chromium picolinate
  853. A condition in which red bood cells are small and light in color due to inadequate hemoglobin synthesis; can be due to B6 defiency
    microcytic, hypochromic anemia
  854. Phosphorous containing compounds often found in the outer coating of a kernel of grain, veggies, and legumes
    phytates
  855. A federally funded program, formerly the food stamp program that helps low-income households pay for food
    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program SNAP
  856. Specific type of cells that can be grown in the labratory and used for research purposes
    cell culture system
  857. The use of drugs to stop the growth of cancer
    chemotherapy
  858. A form of thiamin defiency characterized by poor muscle control and paralysis of the eye muscles
    cerebral beriberi wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
  859. A type of S. aureus that is resistant to most antibiotics
    methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
  860. Bodily movement that uses skeletal muscles and the expendature of energy
    physical activity
  861. An essential trace mineral that is important for redox reactions, thyroid function, and activation of vitamin C
    selenium Se
  862. The response of the central nervous system to sensory stimui, such as smell, sight, and taste, that occurs before food enters the GI tract, characterized by increased GI motility and the release of GI secretions
    cephalic phase
  863. The ability to perform moderate to vigorous physical activity without undue fatigue and the capability of maintaining such ability throughout life
    physical fitness
  864. A muscular movement in the Gi tract that moves the contents back and fourth within a small region, allowing it to mix with GI secretions
    segmentation
  865. A sterol foun in animal foods and made in the body; required for bile acid and steroid hormone synthesis
    cholesterol
  866. A drug that does not contain the hormone estrogen but causes estrogen like effects in the body
    selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM
  867. A non energy requiring mechanism whereby a substance moves from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
    passive transport
  868. A disease in which an alteration in the amino acid sequence of hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become misshapen and decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
    sickle cell anemia
  869. A process by which some carbon carbon double bonds found in PUFAs are converted to carbon carbon single bonds resulting in the prodution of trans fatty acids
    partial hydrogenation
  870. A sterol ester made of a cholesterol molecule bonded to a fatty acid via an ester linkage
    cholesteryl ester
  871. A human experiment in which the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned
    single blind study
  872. The mathematical ratio ot total blood cholestrol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
    cholesterol ratio
  873. Food deprivation for an extended period of time, typically lasting longer than one week
    starvation state
  874. A widely accepted theory suggesting that a hormonal signalling system regulates body weight by makind adjustments in energy intake and expendature
    set point theory
  875. A measure of iron status that reflects the percentage of transferrin that contains iron
    serum transferrin saturation
  876. Adaptive physiological mechanisms that promote the storage of excess energy during times of food abundance and conserve energy during times of limited food availability
    starvation response

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