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Cold Weather Preflight
Special attention should be given to all vents, openings, control surfaces and hinges for accumulation of ice and snow.
Use caution for smooth clear ice that can form on the upper surface of the wing (wing tank area) with OAT's above freezing due to subfreezing fuel is in contact with the underside of the wing skin.
Times when Ignition is on
- T- Turbulence
- I- Icing
- P- Precipitation
- C- Contaminated runways
- E- EEC's off
Atmospheric icing conditions
When the OAT is 10oC or below and any visible moisture is present.
Temperature limit for the prop aux pump test
0oC. Start the engines to warm the oil if necessary before conducting the aux oil pump test.
Cold weather engines starts
Minimum oil temp for starting is -40oC.
If a battery start is required, consider turning on the landing lights then back off to excite the battery.
Considerations for the flaps in cold weather
Cycle the flaps a few times to circulate warm fluid and for proper operation.
Considerations for taxi in cold weather
No single engine taxi with heavy rain or when ramp is contaminated with ice, snow or slush.
Ignition should be OFF. Ignition ON may mask an engine problem.
Maintain a greater distance between other aircraft to aid in stopping or turning.
Airspeed increases if ice remains on the wings after boot activation?
V2- add 15kts
Flaps 25- Vref25+15
Flaps 45- Vref45+10
Considerations for landing in clod weather
Use brakes with caution. Apply brakes smoothly, DO NOT pump brakes, as this causes the anti-skid system to readjust pressure and reduces optimum braking.
Use caution when using reverse thrust below 50kts. The reverse prop wash may blow snow in front reducing viability and the engine may ingest ice or FOD.
Type of icing that the EMB-120 is prohibited to operate in?
Freezing rain and freezing drizzle.
Visual cues for SLD icing
Build up of irregular ridges aft of the protected area and or concentration of ice on the aft half of the spinner, accumulating at the blade root aft.
Inflight activation of the GPWS
- In IMC or at night:
- Level the wings and simultaneously pitch up to best angle of climb (approx 15o). Apply max power, and monitor radio altimeter for trend.
- In VMC during the day:
- Evaluate flight path with respect to terrain, and take actions as necessary to recover or maintain safe terrain clearance.
GPWS Mode 1 "SINK RATE"
Condition- Excessive rate of descent in relation to altitude AGL.
Action- Level wings and reduce rate of descent until visual attained or aural warnings cease.
GPWS Mode 2 "TERRAIN, TERRAIN"
Condition- Terrain rising quickly underneath plane.
Action- Adjust flight path away from terrain.
GPWS Mode 3 "DONT SINK"
Condition- Descent after takeoff or missed approach.
Action- Level wings and establish a positive rate of climb.
GPWS Mode 4a "TOO LOW TERRAIN"
Condition- Insufficient terrain clearance during cruise.
Action- Adjust flight path to recover safe terrain clearance.
GPWS Mode 4b "TOO LOW GEAR"
Condition- Insufficient terrain clearance or landing gear not down below 500' AGL.
Action- Execute a go around if proper terrain clearance or gear position cannot be verified.
GPWS Mode 4c "TOO LOW FLAPS"
Condition- Insufficient terrain clearance or flaps not in landing configuration below 170' AGL.
Action- Execute a go around if proper terrain clearance or flap position cannot be verified.
GPWS Mode 5 "GLIDESLOPE"
Condition- Aircraft is well below glideslope on an ILS below 1000' AGL.
Action- Initiate a go around.
GPWS Mode 6 "FIVE HUNDRED"
Condition- Aircraft is descending below 500' AGL and an ILS is not selected, or the aircraft is more than 2 dots below glideslope.
Action- In IMC, initiate a go around.
TCAS traffic alert
DO NOT make any evasive maneuvers based upon TCAS information. If the other aircraft cannot be identified then contact ATC for additional information.
Braking action rports
- GLA will only use the following braking action reports:
- 1. Company aircraft or aircraft that are of comparable size or greater.
- 2. A MU value given over ATIS or by the tower.
- 3. Reports form airport vehicles.
If any other braking action report is received it is to be "advisory only."
Considerations for pilot to leave the flight deck
Two people must occupy the flight deck at all times. Before the pilot leaves, the seat belt sign should be turned on.
Once the FA is up front they should be briefed as to the operation of the ACM O2 mask. If it is inoperative, then request that they bring up their portable O2 bottle.
The FA may only occupy a pilot seat in the event of turbulence.
Considerations for departure with thunder storms in the vicinity.
- 1. Radar ON before takeoff
- 2. Cockpit free from debris, dirt or objects that may blind or hamper the pilot.
- 3. Request a radar monitored departure.
- 4. Tie down loose equipment.
- 5. DO NOT TAKEOFF INTO A THUNDERSTORM.
Considerations before entering a thunderstorm
- 1. Fasten shoulder harness
- 2. Determine best entry heading
- 3. Establish entry speed
- 4. Set power levers to maintain speed
- 5. Engine ignition on
- 6. Monitor radar
What if the seal on the Emergency Medical Kit is broken?
Contact maintenance control so the contents can be inventoried.
Who can access the Emergency Medical Kit?
Only by qualified medical personnel.
Phases of Emergency Evacuation
- No- Notification
- The Captain will brief the FA on TEST items.
- P- Preparation
- Pilots will secure any loose objects and complete the required emergency and abnormal checklists.
- I- Impact
- Prior to impact the Captain will give the BRACE command or ring the chime system.
- E- Evacuation
- The Captain will perform the Passenger Evacuation Checklist and give the command to EVACUATE. On his way out he will grab the EMK's, flashlights, and fire extinguishers.
If contact is lost with the FA, they will begin their evacuation if there is heavy smoke inside or outside the aircraft, fire, or severe structural damage.
Post unplanned evacuation
- 1. Get 200 yards away
- 2. Do not reenter
- 3. Administer First Aid
- 4. Count survivors
- 5. Obtain survival equipment if safe to reenter aircraft.
The target airspeed to be attained at 35' during takeoff with an engine failure.
First segment climb
Extends from 35' to gear retraction.
Second segment climb
Extends from gear up to level off height of 400' or OCA.
Third segment climb
The distance required to accelerate to Vfs at a constant altitude.
Final segment climb
Extends from the end of the third segment to 1500' while maintaining Vfs.
Define approach climb
A climb from a missed approach with flap 15o, gear up, and takeoff power on the operative engine at max gross weight.
Define Max Structural Weight
The maximum weight listed in the limitations section of the FSM
Define Climb Limited Weight
The maximum weight at which the appropriate climb gradients for each climb segment are attained.
Define Obstruction Limited Weight
The maximum weight that obstruction clearances can be met, usually a strait out flight path unless otherwise stated with a Special Departure Procedure.
Define Brake Energy
The maximum weight at which the brakes can absorb enough energy required to stop the aircraft.
What is an APG DP?
They describe the non-standard, one-engine inoperative departure flight path specifically created for the EMB-120.
What does 'immediate climbing turn' indicate in an APG DP?
The turn is planned at the departure end of the runway with a minimum bank of 15o, with flaps 15o, gear up, one engine inoperative and at V2.
What if a Special DP is not published?
This indicates that no obstacles are present along the runway centerline out to 30 NM up to 1500'.
Crews should verify the MSA before turning away from runway centerline.
When will icing numbers be used when calculating landing performance?
- Icing numbers must be used if:
- The Ice Detector is detecting ice,
- The boots are activated or,
- There is residual ice on the boots.
Airspeed Vref increases when in icing conditions
- Approach and landing:
- Flaps 25- add 15kts
- Flaps 45- add 10kts
- Approach speeds may also be increased by 5-10kts
- Go around (one engine inop):
- V2- add 15kts
What takeoff weights are limiting?
- The LOWER of:
- Runway Limit Weight
- Climb Limit Weight
- Max structural Weight
What landing weights are limiting?
- The LOWER of:
- Runway Limit Weight
- Approach Climb Limit
- Max Structural Weight
- Brake Energy
- 60/70 Rule
- Aircraft cannot takeoff unless it weight upon arrival will allow landing at the destination airport within:
- 1. 60% of the most favorable runway AND,
- 2. 60% of the most suitable runway.
- When calculating landing weight at the destination, the most limiting weight is restricting:
- 1. Approach Climb Limit
- 2. 60% favorable
- 3. 60% suitable
If the suitable runway limit is the most restrictive, a performance alternate may be filed allowing the 60% suitable data to be replaced with 70% suitable data.
Define Driftdown Option 1
Requires a positive slope at least 1000' above and within 5sm of horizontally from all terrain and obstructions on the intended track, with a positive slope of 1500' above the airport.
Define Driftdown Option 2
Requires a net flight path that allows the airplane to continue flight from cruising altitude to an airport clearing all terrain and obstructions by 2000' and 5sm, with a positive slope of 1500' above the airport.
How do we figure out Driftdown Option 1?
- 1. Find grid MORA for intended route of flight and subtract 1000' if in mountainous terrain.
- 2. Find temp for desired altitude in relation to ISA.
- 3. Use those figures to determine max enroute weight on FSM pg 7-35.
What if no decision points are listed on your release?
Should an engine fail, you are guaranteed driftdown clearance from the departure airport to the destination on the filed route.
What if there is one decision point listed on your release?
If an engine fails before the decision point, the aircraft must turn back to the departure airport.
If an engine fails after the decision point, the aircraft must continue to the destination as filed.
What if there are two decision points on your release?
If an engine fails before the first decision point, the aircraft must turn back to the departure airport.
If an engine fails between the two decision points, the aircraft must follow the route specified to one of the alternates.
If an engine fails after both of the decision points, the aircraft must continue to the destination.
Drift Down Limiting takeoff Weight
Single Engine Level Off
Minimum altitude in which the route will be in compliance with Driftdown Option 2.
As a result, driftdown is only guaranteed if the flight is flown at or above MIN ALT.
Driftdown airport weather minimums
Must be at or above the destination airport landing minimums (not derived).
When writing up a plane for exceeding brake energy, at what time does the 26 minute clock start?
It is based on the ON time.
When must you write up that brake energy was exceeded?
If landing at weights above those outlined on the landing brake energy charts and or if an aborted takeoff was done at weights above 80kts and 25794lbs.