Cell Biology & Genetics

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Cell Biology & Genetics
2012-05-20 23:31:01
Cell Biology

Cell Biology
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  1. Eukarya aka Eukaryote
    • More complex & larger than prokaryotes
    • Most exist as part of a more complex multicellular organism
    • Have nucleus
  2. Prokaryotic Cell is...
    Lack a cell nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
  3. Cytoplasm
    • Rich protein fluid
    • Gel like consistency
    • Houses organelles
  4. Nucleoid
    • Condensed DNA of a cell
    • Contains genes & genetic blueprints for protein formation
  5. Vesicles
    • Small membrane bound sacs within cytoplasm
    • Transport proteins in or out of cell

    Types of Vesicles: vacuoles, lysosomes, peroxisomes
  6. Plasmids
    Small, circular portions of DNA not associated with nuceloid
  7. Organelles
    • "little organs"
    • Each serves unique function within cell
  8. Lipids are ________ molecules because they have both polar & nonpolar parts
  9. Integral membrane proteins that function as water channels
  10. Pressure required to maintain equilibrium (no net movement of solvent)
    Osmotic Pressure
  11. Hydrostatic Pressure
    Pressure exerted by a liquid
  12. Tonicity is...
    • A measure of a solutions ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water content
    • (Isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic)
  13. Active Transport
    Solutes entering body cells against concentration gradients thus requiring energy
  14. Numerous short, hair like projections that extend from surface of cell moving fluid along cell’s surface
  15. Flagella
    • Move an entire cell in forward motion with tail
    • Only example in human body is sperm cell’s tail
  16. Ribosomes
    • Site of protein synthesis
    • Manufacture proteins for cell from RNA messages
    • Small free floating bodies within cytoplasm
  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum does...
    • Moves proteins from one part of a cell to another
    • Moves proteins to outside of a cell (secretion)
  18. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
    • Continuous membrane folded into sacs
    • Extends from nuclear envelope (membrane around nucleus) throughout cytoplasm
    • Contains ribosomes (site of protein synthesis)
  19. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER)
    • Extends from Rough ER to form network membrane tubules
    • Does NOT have ribosomes
    • Synthesize fatty acids & steroids (estrogen & testosterone)
    • Detox drugs, alcohol, carcinogens
  20. Golgi Complex
    • Flattened membrane sacs (look like pita bread)
    • UPS center
    • Modify, sort, & package proteins into vesicles for transport to different destinations
  21. Cisternae
    Small flattened membranous sacs with bulging edges that resemble stack pita bread sac
  22. Vacuole
    Storage unit of cell
  23. Lysosomes
    • Membranen enclosed vesicles
    • Contain digestive enzymes
    • Recycle worn-out cell structures
  24. Autophagy
    degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery
  25. Autolysis
    Process where lysosomal enzymes destroy the entire cell that contains them
  26. Peroxisomes (Microbodies)
    • An enzyme that contains sacs that break down organic materials
    • Abundant in liver (detox alcohol)
    • Similar in structure to lysosomes but smaller
  27. Proteasomes
    Destroy unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins continuously
  28. Mitochondria
    • Powerhouse of the cell generating most of the ATP thru aerobic respiration
    • Large, kidney-bean shaped
    • Have own DNA inherited only by mother
  29. Cristae
    • Series of folds located in inner membrane of the mitochondria
    • Site of ATP production
    • Enzymes on cristae convert sugar into ATP
  30. Cellular tracks that during mitosis form mitotic spindle that organizes & segregate chromosomes during cell division
  31. Microtubule organizing centers that help form & organize mitotic spingle during mitosis
  32. Central fluid filled cavity of mitochondrion
  33. Nuclear Envelope
    • Double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
    • Both membranes are lipid bilayers
  34. Nuclear Pores
    • Openings that extend thru the nuclear envelope
    • Each nuclear pore consists of proteins
    • Controls the movement of substances between nucleus & cytoplasm
  35. Cell Wall
    • Cellulose containing cell wall helps give plants cell rigidity
    • Present only in plant cells
  36. Interphase
    Stage in between mitotic cycles

    Cells are carrying on activities other than reproduction such as DNA replication, centrioles dividing, proteins production

    Longest period of the complete cell cycle
  37. Prophase & Prometaphase
    • Chromosomes become visible (coil to become chromatids)
    • Nucleolus fades
  38. Metaphase
    Chromosomes aligns down center of cell (metaphase plate)
  39. Anaphase
    Sister chromatids are now daughter chromosomes

    Chromatids (daughter chromosomes) are pulled apart and begin moving to the cell poles
  40. Telophase
    • Daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles
    • Spindle fibers pulled them apart disappear
    • Nucleoli reappear, chromosomes now surrounded by new nuclei

    • In Plants...
    • Formation of new cell plate
    • Formation of new cell wall
  41. Cytokinesis
    Process in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell is divided to form two daughter cells

    It usually initiates during the late stages of mitosis
  42. Chromatid
    • 1 of 2 identical copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome
    • Joined at their centromeres
    • For the process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis)

    Called Sister Chromatids when joined by the centromeres

    Called Daughter Chromosomes when they separate during anaphase of mitosis & anaphase 2 of meiosis
  43. Nucleus
    • Large organelle in center of cell
    • Double membrane with pores
    • Contains cell's genetic material
    • Directs activities of the cell
  44. Nucleolus
    • Small body within nucleus
    • Produces ribosomes that move into cytoplasm to make proteins
  45. Mitosis vs Cytokenesis
    Nucleus vs cytoplasm division
  46. Precursor cell destined to become a gamete
    • germ cell
    • sperm or oocyte
  47. G1 Phase
    • Part 1 of Interphase in cell life
    • Cell is metabolically active
    • Organelles are duplicating
    • Centrosome replication begins

    • DNA dobule helix unwinds
    • messenger RNA created, takes info to ribisomes
  48. S Phase
    • Part 2 of Interphase in cell life
    • DNA is replicated
  49. G2 Phase
    • Part 3 of Interphase in cell life
    • Enzymes & proteins are synthesized
    • Centrosome replication completed
    • Continued cell groth in preparation for cell division
  50. Chromosome
    • Organized structure of DNA & protein found in cells.
    • A single piece of coiled DNA
    • Contains genes, regulatory elements, other nucleotide sequences.
  51. Karyotype
    • The number / appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
    • The complete set of chromosomes in a species
  52. Hereditary units containing coded info passed down from parents
  53. Most of the DNA of eukaryotic cells are located in the nucleus but small amounts of DNA can be found in the _____ and _____
    • Mitochondria (inherited from mother only)
    • Chloroplast (plants only)
  54. Gene's specific location along length of chromosome
  55. Somatic Cell
    • Any cell in human NOT involved in gamete formation
    • Has 46 chromosomes
  56. Homologous Chromosomes aka Homologs or Homologues are...
    • Chromosome pairs with similar length, centromere position, & staining pattern, with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci.
    • One homologous chromosome is inherited from mother; the other from father.

    During meoisis, pair up and DNA can cross over

    • Humans have...
    • 22 pairs of homologous non-sex chromosomes ( autosomes)
    • 1 pair of sex chromosomes
    • 23 pairs total
  57. Chromosomes that do NOT determine the sex of the human are called ______ while chromosomes that DO are called ____
    • Autosomes
    • Sex Chromosome aka Allosome
  58. Cells with 2 chromosome sets are called ______ while cells with 1 set are called ______
    • Dipold Cells (2n)
    • Haploid Cells (n)
  59. Fertilization is the union of the ______ of sperm & egg. Fertilized egg is also called a ______
    • Nuclei
    • Zygote
  60. Cell Cycle Chart
  61. Autolysis vs Autophagy
    • Autolysis
    • - Breakdown of the lysosomal membrane causing lysosomal enzymes to be released
    • - Enzymes digest cell's contents

    • Autophagy
    • - "Self Canabolism"
    • - Organelle and cellular contents are taken inside the lysosome and then digested