Genomes

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Author:
jmali921
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143839
Filename:
Genomes
Updated:
2012-03-25 23:44:32
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Genomes
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  1. The equivalent of a TATA box (prokaryote) in a eukaryotic cell?
    Kozak sequence
  2. Operator
    the segment of DNA in which a transcription factor binds (repressor/initiator)
  3. Operator
    A group of genes or a segment of DNA that functions as a single transcription unit. It is comprised of an operator, a promoter, and one or more structural genes that are transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA.
  4. Intergenic DNA
    DNA inbetween clusters of genes; they have no genes
  5. alien genes
    genes found in a genome that appear to have come from another species via horizontal gene transfer
  6. antisense technology
    a molecular method that uses a nucleic acid sequence complementary to an mRNA so that the two bind and the mRNA is effectively neutralized.
  7. BAC
    • bacterial artificial chromosome
    • cloning vector replicated in bacteria that can hold an insert of about 150,000 base pairs.
    • BACs were used extensively in public HGP
  8. Biofilms
    meshwork of prokaryotes living collectively and resistamt to many chemical agents
  9. Brownian movement
    random movement of particles or molecules that is powered by kinetic energy of the solution
  10. CAMP factors (not cAMP)
    secreted proteins that bind to antibodies and can form pores in the eukaryotic cell membranes
  11. capillary electrophoresis
    • a method that allows small amounts of compounds to be seperated for further analysis.
    • The heart of automated DNA sequencing
  12. Chromatogram (chromat)
    a four-coloured graph produced from nonradioactive dideoxy sequencing methods
  13. COG
    • Clusters of Orthologous Groups
    • evolutionary related sequences from several microbial genomes.
  14. Coding Capacity
    the percentage of a genome that contains protein or funtional RNA coding DNA
  15. Contigs
    overlapping DNA segments that as a collection form a longer and gapless segment of DNA
  16. EGS
    • external guide sequence
    • short RNA sequences that bind to mRNAs that resembles a tRNA precursor.
    • RNaseP recognizes this pre-tRNA and cleaves the mRNA, thus inactivating it
  17. Epigenetic regulation
    • control of gene activity without altering the DNA sequence
    • ex. imprinting (affected by methyltransferases adding a methyl group to cytosine bases in DNA)
  18. Euchromatin
    gene rich, non-compacted portion of the chromosome that is transcriptionally active
  19. exons
    part of the RNA molecule spliced together to form mRNA
  20. Feedback loop
    biochemical term to descrbe how the products of a circuit pathway can either enhance or repress the circuit
  21. Finished sequence
    • DNA has been sequenced at least 8x and there are no gaps
    • contains no more than 1 error / 10,000 base pairs
    • $$$$ and time consuming
  22. horizontal transfer
    the movement of DNA from one species to another without sexual tranmission; mechanism uncertain, perhaps viral
  23. imprinting
    process through which mammalian paternal and maternal alleles can be treated differently, depending on which parent contributed them to the offspring
  24. indels
    collective noun that refers to insertions or deletions of bases in DNA
  25. isoforms
    refer to 2 or more versions of highly similar proteins.
  26. Motif
    a sequence of amino acids or nucleotides that performs a particular role and is often conserved in other species or molecules
  27. ORF
    a potion of cDNA or gene that begins with a start codon and ends with a stop codon
  28. paralogs
    two genes within a species that evolved from one another
  29. Pseudogenes

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