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Sample
the set of elements selected form a population

Element
The basic unit selected

Population
The full set of elements from which the sample is selected

Sampling
The process of drawing a sample from a population

Representative sample
A sample that resembles the population

Equal propability of selection method (EPSEM)
Sampling method in which each individual element has an equal probability of selection into the sample

Statistic
A numerical characteristic of sample data

parameter
A numerical characteristic of a population

sampling error
differences between sample values and the true population parameter

Census
collection of data form everyone in the population

Sampling frame
A list of all the elements in a population

response rate
the percentage of people selected to be in a sample and who participate in the research study

\Biased sample
a nonrepresentative sample

Proximal similarity
generalization to people, places, settings, and contexts that are similar to those described in the research study

Simple random sampling
A popular and basic equal probability selection method

Statified random sampling
Division of population elements into mutually exclusive groups and then selection of a random sample from each group

Proportional stratified sampling
Stratified sampling where the sample proportions are made to be the same as the population proportions on the stratification variable

disproportional stratifies samples
Stratified sampling where the sample proportions are made to be differnet from the population proportion s on the stratifcation variable

Cluster random sampling
Sampling method where clusters are randomly selected

Cluster
A collection type of unit that includes multiple elements

Onestage cluster sampling
Clusters are randomly selected and all the elements in the selected clusters constitute the sample

Twostage cluster sampling
Clusters are randomly selected, and a random sample of elements is drawn from each of the selected clusters

Systematic sampling
The samplking method where one determines the sampling interval(k), randomly selects an element between 1 and k, and then selects every kth element

Sampling interval
the population size divided by the desired sample size; it's symbolized by the letter k

periodicity
Problematic situation in systematic sampling that can occur if there is a cyclical pattern in the sampling

Convenience sampling
use of people who are reeadily available, volunteer, or are easily recruited for inclusion in a sample

Quota Sampling
A researcher decides on the desired sample sizes or quotas for groups identified for inclusion in the sample, followed by convenience sampling fron the groups

purposive sampling
a researcher specifies the characteristics of the population of interest and then locates individuals who have those characteristics

Snowball sampling
each sampling person is asked to identify other potential particpants with the inclusion characteristic

Random selection
Selection of participants using a random sampling methods

Random assignment
Placement of participants into experimental conditions on the basis of a chance process

purpose of random selection
to obtain a representative sample

Purpose of random assignment
to produce two or more equivalent groups for use in an experiment

Sample size calculator
A statistical program used to provide a recommended sample size

mixed sampling
use of a combination of quantitative and qualitative sampling methods

