Vertebrates(1)

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HappyJedi7
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143864
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Vertebrates(1)
Updated:
2012-03-26 04:08:13
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Bio 242
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  1. derived characters of chordates
    • notochord
    • pharyngeal slits/clefts
    • dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • muscular, post-anal tail
  2. cephalochordata
    • lancelets
    • most chordate features retained as adults
    • cirri - filter water that enters the mouth
    • underground as adults
    • minimal nervous, circulatory systems
  3. urochordata
    • tunicates (sea squirts)
    • larval stage retains chordate features; mainly a dispersal stage
    • undergoes metamorphosis
    • adult stage is sessile filter feeder with incurrent and excurrent siphons
    • chordate features in adult stage are highly reduced or disappear altogether
  4. derives features of craniates
    • cephalization in the head
    • sensory organs
    • more adapted to predation
    • neural crest cells
    • closed circulatory system with blood and hemoglobin; 2 chambered heart
    • kidneys and excretion
    • higher metabolic rate
    • extensive muscular system
  5. myxini
    • hagfishes
    • craniate basal group
    • cartilaginous skull
    • axial rod of cartilage for support on dorsal side
    • slime glands
  6. derived characters of vertebrates
    • craniates with a backbone
    • vertebrae encase spinal cord
    • elaborate skull
    • fins
  7. petromyzontida
    • lampreys
    • cartilage skeleton
    • persistent notochord
    • cartilaginous projections around nerve cord serve as rudimentary vertebrae
    • parasites; tongue that digs into prey and sucks out fluid
  8. conodonts
    • transitional stage
    • mineralization of some structures
    • ossification of dental elements first
    • still jawless
  9. derived characters of gnathostomes
    • vertebrates with jaws (may have been derived from bones that support pharyngeal clefts)
    • lateral line system and enhanced sensory organs
    • mineralized endoskeleton
    • larger brain
    • diverged into 3 groups: chondrichthyes, osteichthes, tetrapods
  10. chondrichthyes
    • sharks, rays, relatives
    • cartilaginous skeleton
    • some traces of bone in teeth, vertebrae, scales
    • carnivorous
    • spiral valve inside instestines
    • acute senses; electrical fields and vibrations
    • buoyancy with fatty livers
    • must move constantly to aerate gills
    • eggs can be shed, born live, or develop inside mother
  11. osteichthes
    • gnathostomes with ossified skeleton
    • includes all bony fishes and tetrapods
    • 2 biggest clades: actinopterygii & sarcopterygii
  12. actinopterygii
    • ray-finned fishes
    • tuna, seahorse, clownfish, etc.
    • fins supported by rays
    • operculum (moves water across gills) and swim bladders
  13. sarcopterygii
    • lobe-finned fishes
    • actinistia (coelacanth) and dipnoi (lungfish)
    • bones in fins allots for management in shallow water
  14. tetrapods
    osteichthes with 4 limbs
  15. Tiktaalik
    • shows characters of both tetrapods and fish
    • bone girdles
    • neck
    • ribs
    • fin is similar to forearm bones
  16. Acanthostega
    • limbs with digits
    • retained an amphibious lifestyle
  17. Amphibia
    • partial water/land lives
    • metamorphosis
    • respiratory system (either gills, lungs, or skin)
    • closed circulatory system with chambered heart
    • eggs and external fertilization
    • 3 main groups are urodela, anura, apoda
  18. urodela
    • salamanders
    • retained tails and legs
  19. anura
    • frogs
    • lost tail
    • retained powerful hind legs
  20. apoda
    lost tail and legs
  21. derived characters of amniotes
    • tetrapods with amniotic egg
    • well-adapted to living on land
    • impermeable skin (keratin)
    • ribcage for ventilation of lungs
    • limbs elevate body
  22. amniotic egg
    • develops outside of mother's body
    • extraembryonic layers derived from zygote
    • all surrounded by albumen
    • amnion - protects embryo; closest in proximity to embryo
    • allantois - takes wastes
    • chorion - gas exchange (egg shell is typically impermeable)
    • yolk sac - contains nutrients
  23. Reptilia
    • scales (keratin)
    • lungs
    • internal fertilzation
    • closed circulatory system with 3-4 chambered heart
    • shelled eggs (calcium, leathery)
    • 2 main lineages are parareptiles and diapsids (lepidosaurs and archesaurs)
  24. parareptiles
    • earliest reptiles, extinct
    • large, quadrupeda
    • herbivores
  25. diapsids
    • includes all living and extinct reptiles except turtles
    • two temporal fenestrae
    • includes archesaurs and lepidosaurs
  26. archesaurs
    • distinguished by certain skull features
    • teeth in sockets
    • crocodilians: crocodiles and alligators
    • dinosaurs
  27. dinosaurs
    • part of archesaur line
    • endothermic dinosaurs evolved into birds
    • erect posture
    • higher metabolic rate
    • ribcage support and expansion (because of erect posture)
  28. lepidosaurs
    tuataras and squamates (true lizards, snakes)
  29. tuataras (distinguishing characters from lizards)
    • found only around New Zealand
    • dorsal spines
    • ossified teeth; double row on upper jaw, single row on lower jaw
  30. turtles
    • contradicting evidence for classification
    • asynapsid (no temporal fenestrae)
  31. derived characters of birds
    • wings and feathers
    • light skeleton with spongy bone
    • no teeth
    • no urinary bladder, single ovary
    • 4 chambered heart
    • endothermic and high metabolic rate
    • acute senses of sight, fine muscle control
  32. "microraptor" and Archaeopteryx
    contain both reptilian and bird features
  33. derived characters of mammals
    • from synapside lineage
    • modified/reduced temporal fenestra
    • mammary glands
    • hair/fat as insulation
    • larger brain and braincase
    • endothermic
    • variation in teeth due to different diets
    • remodeled jaw
    • 4 chambered heart
    • 3 lineages: monotremes, marsupials, eutherians
  34. monotremes
    • lay eggs
    • nurse through skin after born
  35. marsupials
    • short gestation period
    • complete embryonic development nursing from nipple in pouch
  36. eutherians
    • complete gestation
    • placented
    • born through birth canal as mini-adult

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