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- the immediate surrounding context of a stress or conflict
- time of day the event happens, room the couple interacts in, whether the lights are on or off, whether each partner had a good day at work or a bad one, how much time couples have to spend together.
- the removed context of a stress or conflict
- social, religious and cultural contexts, global and historical conditions, demands of working outside the home.
aspects of the environment that are relatively stable and enduring.
events/stressors that have a relatively clear onset and the possibility of an end point.
the effects of stress in one domain of a person’s life are transmitted to other domains.
daily diary method
asking indivs to report on aspects of their life at regular intervals.
stress affecting one member may be transmitted to other members.
a method of graphically displaying the strength and number of relationships within a collection of individuals.
including the people whom individuals see as playing important roles in their lives.
including the people with whom individuals interact regularly.
degree to which members of an individual’s social network are themselves connected. the density of a network is independent of its size.
the extent to which partners in a relationship consider the same individuals to be part of their personal networks.
the benefits that indivs derive from their relationships with others.
- the degree to which different members of a social network fulfill the same needs for a person.
- in dating relationships, partners who feel closer to their own best friends are more likely to end their relationship.
noticing conflict and evaluating whether it represents a threat
trying to understand why the conflict is happening and what the child should do about it.
seeing themselves as somehow responsible for tension they are witnessing (children’s perspective)
getting used to something that happens consistently/ becoming less reactive.
- becoming more reactive the more you are exposed to something.
- evidence that children become more sensitized when fighting is common.
differential parental treatment
one parent devoting more attention or more resources to one child over another.
theories of mind
recognition that other people have beliefs, knowledge, and desires different from one’s own.
false belief test
a test to measure whether or not a child has developed a theory of mind.
shared imaginative play
when children create and inhabit a fantasy world together.
way of quantifying the social standing of indivuduals within a group.
unmarried couples sharing a household.
socioemotional selectivity theory
as people age they become increasingly aware of their mortality.
- things that make you feel important, cared for, needed, valued, having a sympathetic ear.
- – stuff that helps you cope with the specific event
- Filling up partners car b/c they don’t have time
- Giving advice on the problem
– things that partner does that you can see; can make person who needs help feel incompetent.
- – things that are helpful that youre not aware of will be more useful than things you are aware of.
- Also want to BELIEVE that partner is supportive.
– want support to match the need.
– reaching out to others in your social network; coping is helpful because it reduces crossover and spillover and also because if you’re dealing well with your stress, you can help with partner’s stress.
- looking to partner for emotional support, problem solving - more healthy but if in a situation where you cant fix the problem, it wont be as effective.
– not effective on problems unless the problem has NO solution.
– parent behavior is observed by the child.
– saying and doing things to try to get children to behave in a specific way.
Environment of parenting
- high adaptability
- low adaptability
- high cohesiveness
- low cohesiveness
Cohesiveness and adaptability
Families working best with scores in middle of adaptability and cohesiveness.
– no rules, everything is open.
– everything has a time and place, must be done in a certain way.
- (possible enmeshment) warmth, too much togetherness
- – no differentiation of boundaries, “I’m upset you have to be upset to” (I’m cold, you put on a sweater), no separation between yourself and others, mixing identities.
– coldness, boundaries not differentiated.
– anything that is going to shape the child’s development, everything the parent does.
- – affection, love, time together, sense that parent cares/wants the best for you.
- Aspect of parenting
- – discipline and warmth that can be relied upon and expected during similar situations.
- Aspect of parenting
- – structure, providing an environment where the child knows what is expected of them, knows the boundaries, and receives appropriate reinforcement for desired behaviors and appropriate punishment for undesired behaviors.
- Aspect of parenting
cohesiveness and adaptability spectrum
- Low c high a – unpredictable family
- High c low a – lots of warmth very rigid
- Low c low a – military no warmth,
- High a, high c – warmth and chaos
- Needs to happen as soon as possible after the event
- Needs to be fair in relation to the event
- – thinking about the child’s needs ahead of time and planning on it
- Going to a store or meeting – having something for the child to do because they wont be able to sit still for an hour
- – paying attention to whether or not what you’re doing is working.
- Noticing the coloring book is not enough, deciding to bring a doll or an iphone game next time to keep the child occupied.
–if it worked, great; if it didn’t work, how can work better next time
– may lead to more assessing and anticipating
- problem solving
– thinking about parenting, being aware on a higher level of the things that are effective and not effective in the relationship with the child
= within individual
= between people
Theory of mind
– understanding that you have different thoughts, feelings, and experiences than another person
- With an aggressive disorder – more likely to see a neutral face as angry
- With depression – more likely to see a neutral face as sad
communication in mental health relationships affected by
- emotional recognition
- theory of mind
- People with EE generally think people with mental illnesses have control over their symptoms and blame them for acting the way they do; sometimes an exaggerated belief that the ill person has no control and has to be watched all the time
- High levels of EE associated with family conflict
Actor partner interdependence model
- Affect of my depression on my satisfaction
- Affect of my depression on my partners satisfaction
- Affect of Partners depression on their satisfaction
- Affect of Partners depressions on my satisfaction
– denying children access to needed resources (food, medical, attention)
types of family violence
- emo/psyc violence
- physical violence
- sexual abuse
IPV – interpartner violence/ domestic violence/ battering
- Nationwide 30% of couples have experienced physical aggression at least once in their relationship
- More distressed couples it may be as high as 60%
- Men and women are equally violent and in some instances women are more violent
social information processing model
- presented with stimulus/event
- interpret stimulus
- come up with possible responses to stimulus
- evaluation of consequences to responses
- choosing a response
- reinforcement or punishment of response to event
- on road to marriage
- testing relationship
- uncommitted relationship
- instead of marriage
primary, secondary, tertiary prevention
Primary prevention – universal prevention, to stop it from ever occurring
- Teaching relationship skills in schools
- Tends to be skills based – parenting and relationship skills
- Teaching appropriate expectations of child behavior
Secondary prevention – for people who are at risk or at high risk
Less secondary than primary prevention
Tertiary prevention – after problem is already present how do you deal with it; intervention
- Self justification – person saying that their behavior is acceptable
- Getting people to accept that their behavior is wrong is hard b/c of embarrassment or stubbornness or self justification
causes of infidelity
- predisposing factors/ distal factors – setting the stage
- approach - A series of small decisions that lead one closer and closer to committing infidelity
- Precipitating – The beginning of an affair – in some cases there’s no clear beginning
- Maintenance- factors that keep infidelity going
- Disclosure/Discovery- what happens when people find out about their partner having an affair
- Response – how a spouse/partner reacts to the affair
recovering from an affair
- dealing with the trauma – victim and participator each have feelings
- making meaning – knowing why it happened will help to predict/avoid events in the future
- reaching informed decision – stay with partner or leave partner