SOC 101: Exam 2

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SOC 101: Exam 2
2012-03-26 09:29:13
exam sociology 101

Study guide for exam to of introductory sociology
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  1. Culture
    • Material and nonmaterial culture
    • Patterns
    • Symbols/language
    • Artifacts
    • Norms
    • Beliefs and values
  2. Material culture
    includes things that humans make or adapt from the raw stuff of nature
  3. Nonmaterial culture
    • Intangible
    • Symbols, language, norms, values and beliefs
  4. Symbols
    Anything that represents something else to more than one person
  5. Language/gestures
    Organized set of symbols
  6. Whorf-Sapir hypothesis
    Thinking and perception are shaped by language
  7. 5 functions of language
    • 1) Organizes the way we think and interpret events and things in environment
    • 2) Allows human experience to be culmulative
    • 3) Allows shared perspective and understanding
    • 4) Allows complex goal-directed behavior
    • 5) Allows us to identify who people are and their social positions
  8. Artifacts
    Byproducts of human action
  9. Norms
    • Rules for behavior
    • Socially approved ways of doing things
  10. Folkways
    • Casual norms
    • Violations aren't very serious
  11. Mores
    • Serious norms
    • More severe reaction to violations
  12. Taboo
    • Even the thought of violating upsets people
    • Some can be mores
  13. William Graham Sumner
    • Divided norms into two categories: folkways and mores
    • Taboos were added by later sociologists
  14. Sanctions
    • Response from others when norms are violated or upheld
    • Negative vs Positive
    • Formal vs Informal
  15. Values
    • Ranking forms of behavior in terms of their relative desirability
    • Ideas about what is good and desirable vs what is bad and undesirable
  16. Beliefs
    • Dominant, widely held beliefs
    • People's idea about what is real and what is not real
  17. Ideology
    Specific set of ideas and beliefs that have been distorted by social, economic and politcal interests.
  18. Social institutions
    • Relatively enduring clusters of values, norms, statuses and roles that address societies' needs (purpose is to meet social needs)
    • 1) Generally unplanned and developed gradually
    • 2) Institutional change occurse very slowly
    • 3) Institutions are highly inter-related
    • 4) Norms and forms of social interactions may not be similar to the same institution in another society.
  19. Cultural diffusion
    Process by which cultural things are adopted
  20. Cultural leveling
    The differences between culture decreasing as diffusion increases
  21. Subculture
    Formed by groups of people within society with shared values, norms, beliefs or use of material culture thatset them apart from other people in theat society
  22. Countercultures
    Special form of subculture that seems to threaten the parent culture
  23. Ubiquitous
    • Culture is ubiquitous
    • It exists everywhere
  24. Social structure
    • Network of relationships connecting different statuses in a group, including norms for interaction among different statuses.
    • Set of relatively stable rules, patterned relationship among statuses
  25. Status
    Postion in a group, social structure
  26. Achieved status
    Status that is gained
  27. Ascribed status
    Status that you are born to
  28. Status inconsistency
    Culturally inconsistant when multiple statuses are combined
  29. Role strain
    • Occurs when there isn't enough time to fulfill all the roles in a status
    • Demanding roles
  30. Role conflict
    Combination of statuses that results in conflicting roles
  31. Master status
    Status that cuts across all others
  32. Groups
    • Two or more individuals with shared sense of identity/goals, that interact within a specific social structure
    • Not social aggregation
  33. Social aggregation
    Collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time
  34. Primary groups
    • Charles Horton Cooley
    • Intimate face-to-face association
    • Learn rules of social life and cooperation (socialization process)
    • Cooperation and competition
  35. Secondary groups
    • Means-to-an-end relationships
    • Larger groups
    • Shorter lived
    • More formal
    • Impersonal
  36. Society
    • Largest social structure
    • 5 major qualities:
    • 1) Social group w/ definite geographical boundary
    • 2) Recruitment of new members through sexual reproduction
    • 3) Comprehensive culture and social structures
    • 4) Political independence
    • 5) Long life
  37. Societal needs
    • Reproduction
    • Socialization
    • Creation of knowledge
    • Selection and screening of talent
    • Social control
    • Mobilization of resources
    • Production and exchange of goods and services
    • Promote social unity
  38. Formal organizations
    People band together to achieve a specific goal and formalize their relationship with one another
  39. Max Weber
    • Modern life will be increasingly played out in bureaucracies
    • Ideal-type bureaucracies
  40. Bureaucracy
    • Manifestation of the trend toward the rationalization of life
    • Ideal, pure form of bureacracy
  41. Nepotism
    Favoring one's relatives over others
  42. "Iron Cages"
    Bureaucracies could become a trap where people follow procedures and rules, and they lose sight of the reason they're working so hard.
  43. Goal displacement
    • Robert Merton
    • When process becomes more important than the outcome
  44. Self-sufficiency
    Able to provide resources for basic needs of its members
  45. Habitualized action
    • Action becomes cast into a pattern
    • Occurs over time
  46. Reification of culture
    Making culture more concrete and instrumental than it actually is
  47. Microsociology
    Human interaction on a small scale
  48. Macrosociology
    Looking at bigger picture like societies
  49. Small world hypothesis
    • Stanley Milgram
    • 6 degrees of separation
  50. Feral children
    Lack cultural competency
  51. Sigmund Freud on nonsociological theory of human development
    • Id, Ego, Superego
    • Sublimate
  52. Sublimate
    Process by which the ego finds an acceptable outlet for id that super ego finds unacceptable
  53. Piaget on nonsociological theory of human development
    • Stages of development:
    • Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)
    • Preoperational (2-7 yrs)
    • Concrete (7-11 yrs)
    • Formal (adolescence)
  54. Reference groups
    • Term coined by Robert Hyman
    • Functions:
    • 1) Provide model of how to behave
    • 2) Serve as standard against which we evaluate ourselves
  55. Relative deprivation
    Experienced when what we have is lower than reference group
  56. Relative gratification
    Experienced when what we have is higher than reference group
  57. Socialization
    Process whereby an individual is turned into a person; gain cultural competency
  58. Social self
    Values, beliefs, ideas, and decision-making strategies, and the general way in which people live their lives
  59. Charles Horton Cooley, looking-glass selves
    • Socialization process
    • We self-create base on our perception of how others see us
    • Reflective process
    • Primary groups
  60. George Herbert Mead, I and Me
    • Socialization process
    • Me = How we think another person sees us
    • I = Our personal reactions to situations
    • Social self is ongoing intraction of Me and I
  61. Play and Games
    • In child play, the child becomes another to one's self
    • Game, need to know what role to play, and know roles of others to know what to do
  62. Generalized other
    Attitude of the whole community
  63. Role-taking
    Take on role of another to see how things look from his or her point of view
  64. Agents of socialization
    • Family
    • School (and hidden curiculum)
    • Peer groups
    • Workplace
  65. Family
    Parents teach outlooks they think is suited to their own experience in their world
  66. School
    • Manifest function = teach skills needed for success in adult world
    • Hidden curiculum = accept what teachers think will be the student's place in the social structure
  67. Peer groups
    • How to behave appropriately
    • Independence from adult authority
  68. Workplace
    • Socialization steps:
    • 1) Career choice
    • 2) Anticipatory socialization
    • 3) Employment and learn reality of the job
  69. Anticipatory socialization
    Learning about and playing at a work role before entering it
  70. Rites of passage
    Ceremony that mark transition from status to status
  71. Total institutions
    • Erving Goffman
    • People cut off from rest of society and stripped of individuality
    • Goal is to resocialize
  72. Resocialization
    Learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors
  73. Degradation ceremony
    Degrade individual, take away the individual's self
  74. Depersonalization
    • Take away individuality
    • Merge into group