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  1. What is the littoral zone?
    shallow waters along the shore, where flowering plants are rooted
  2. what is the limnetic zone?
    offshore and comprises water the receives enough sunlight to support photosynthesis
  3. Benthic zone?
    made up of substrate
  4. Photic zone?
    regions of the littoral limnetic and benthic zones that receive sunlight
  5. aphotic zone?
    do not receive sunlight
  6. What is emergent vegetation? where does this occur?
    plants grow above the surface of the water, wetlands
  7. What is the difference between bogs and marshes and swamps?
    unproductive b/c of anoxicity and poor nutrients due to stagnancy of the water; decomp slows as oxgyen is depleted in water; marshes and swamps are extremely productive. Marshes have nonwoody plants and swamps have trees and shrubs
  8. What is the water movement of streams?
    one direction, can be fast or slow. fast moving from mountains are cold and can hold more oxgen; it also has more oxgen when it hits rocks, slow moving part has more nutrients, becuase it is not easily washed away
  9. Explain the three zones in ocean.
    • intertidal zone: consists of rocky, sandy, or muddy beach that is exposed to air at low tide but submerged at high tide
    • neritic zone: extends from intertidal zone to the end of continental shelf
    • oceanic zone: open ocean
  10. what is estuaries and what is unique about them?
    where river meets the ocean; water flow fluctuates which alters salinity, which in turn affect the tyes of organisms present. Among the most productive; high nutrients (nutrient-ladden sediments are deposited when flowing river slows as it enters the ocean)
  11. Which zones of the ocean are nutrient rich and nutrient poor?
    neritic and intertidal zones are nutrient rich b/c they receive nutrients from rivers and upwellings; oceanic zone has less nutrients due to rain of dead organisms drifiting to the benethic zone
  12. How is conservation biology related to ecology?
    ecologist study how interactions between organisms and their environments result in a particular species being found in a particular area at a particular populaton size. Conservation biologist apply these date to study, preserve species and restore environments
  13. What are the 4 levels that researchers work at?
    • organismal: morphological, physiological, behavioral adaptations that allow an individual to live in a particular area
    • population: (group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same area at the same time) how the numbers of individuals in a population change over time
    • community: (consists of species that interact with each other within a particular area) ask questions about the consequences and nature of these interactions
    • ecosystem: (all organisms in a particular region along with abiotic factors) how nutrients and energy move among organisms and through the surrounding atmosphere
  14. What affects the distribution and abundance of organisms in aquatic environments?
    nutrient availability, water depth and water movement, light availability
  15. Describe ocean upwelling.
    • winds blow moving water at surface
    • moving surface water moves offshore, forced by earth's rotation
    • as surface water leaves, it is replaced by nutrient ladden water welling up from the bottom
  16. What is thermocline?
    change in temperature as we change the depth of water
  17. Describe lake turnover.
    • Winter: highest level of oxgyen on top, bottom of the water is oxgyen poor, top is 0 degrees
    • spring, ice melts, water becomes warm until it get 4 degrees, gets dense and sinks, water at bottom is displaced and comes to surface, carrying nutrients from the bottom, increase growth of photosynthetic algae (spring bloom)
    • summer: warm water on top
    • fall temp at top reaches 4 degrees and sinks, displacing water at bottom
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