18-1 Jewish History from the Fall of Babylon to the Rise of Rome
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5 great world empires
the last king of Babylon
Nabonidus (ascend the throne in 555)
When did Cyrus of Persia capture Babylon?
How did Cyrus take over Babylon?
He penetrated the city's incredible defense by draining the Euphrates River and having his men wade into the city. He did everything in a peaceful manner.
When and where did Cyrus die?
He died fighting in Afghanistan around 530 bc.
When did Cyrus rule?
Rulers of the Persian Empire from Cyrus to the migration of Ezra and Nehemiah
- Cyrus II the Great (550-529)
- Cambyses II
- Darius I
- Xerxes I
- Artaxerxes I
When did Alexander the Great conquered the Persians?
How long did Persia rule the empire, including Judea?
430-331 BC; it was peaceful
What was the language of the Persian empire?
Aramaic, which will become the language of the Holy Land.
When did Cyrus issue a decree allowing Jews to return from Babylon to their homeland?
What were other kindness of Cyrus to the Jews, besides allowing them to return to Judea?
- He provided money for rebuilding the Temple.
- He sent with them the vessels that the Babylonians had taken from the Temple.
Did all Israelites in Babylon return to their homeland?
No. In fact, most of them remained in Babylon.
Who led the Jews in their journey returning to Judea from Babylon in 538?
Zerubbabel and/or Sheshbazzar
When was the rebuilt second temple dedicated?
Who, after the second Temple, later built the "third Temple" by reconstructing and remodeling the second one? When was the third temple finally destroyed?
Herod; destroyed in 70 AD by the Romans
Who is Ezra? What did he do and when?
- a priest and scribe in favor of the King of Persia
- He traveled to Judea in 458 with authority to appoint judges and magistrates.
What did Ezra do to restore a purified Israel in the Promised Land after the Exile?
He convinced the Israelites to put aside the pagan women from the surrounding nations whom they had married in order to prevent the cycle of infidelity from starting again.
Who is Nehemiah? What did he do and when?
He arrived from Babylon in Judea in 458, and acted as governor in Jerusalem.
When did Nehemiah act as governor in Jerusalem/
What does the book of Ezra describe?
- the rebuilding of the Temple in 516
- the mission of Ezra
What does the book of Nehemiah describe/
- similar with what is described in Ezra
- this is written by Nehemiah himself
When did Alexander the Great die?
After the death of Alexander the great, his vast conquests were divided among several generals. What were the divisions?
- the Ptolemies: controlled Egypt.
- the Seleucids: controlled the old Persian Empire and eventually Judea.
What is the significance of the Ptolemies?
in 250 BC, under the Ptolemies, the Gk. Septuagint version of the OT is translated in Alexandria.
How long did the Persians rule?
How long was the Holy Land under the influence of the Greeks
Who led the Jews in a revolt against the Seleucids king Antiochus IV Epiphanes?
the Maccabean brothers
When did the Maccabean brothers led the revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes?
Why did Judas Macccabeus, along with his four brothers, revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes?
because he attempted to Hellenize the Jews
Was the Maccabean revolt successful, and what did it introduce/
It was successful. It introduced an era of Jewish independence that lasted until 63 BC, when the Romans under Pompey seize control of Judea.
When was the Temple rededicated in 164?
it was no longer pure because of pagan worship with prostitution introduced by the Greeks
What is Hasmonean Kingdom?
It was the Jewish kingdom set up by the Maccabeans that lasted from 165-137 BC.
What is Hanukkah all about?
It commemorates the purification and rededication of the Temple in 164.
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