ANAT.Exam.3

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xiongav
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143918
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ANAT.Exam.3
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2012-04-05 21:33:57
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Respiratory System
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Respiratory System
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  1. What is the function of the thoracic cage? (2)

    superior/inferior thoracic aperatures
    1) Protection

    2) Respiratory
  2. What is analogous to the 1) conducting system, 2) a box, 3) ballons?
    1) Pipes

    2) thoracic cage

    3) lungs
  3. What are the two UNIT components of the lungs and what is their function?
    1) Conducting Unit = airway

    2) Respiratory Unit = O2 / CO 2 exchange
  4. What are two forms of Respiration?
    1) Internal Respiration: tissue level, CO2 / O2

    2) External Respiration = O2 / CO2
  5. The Nose.

    External Nose.

    What does the external nares (nostrils) consist of?

    (Mckinley p. 749; locate alar (wing).
    1) Vestibule ("entrance" or "atrium"; nose holes)

    2) Vibrissae ("nose hairs")

    3) Skin = (stratified squamous epithelium)
  6. Nasal Cavity.

    What is it lined by?

    What is the internal nares or Choanae "funnel"
    Lined by respiratory mucosa.

    Internal NARES is the diameter of the nasal cavity.
  7. What does the Nasal Septum consist of? (2)
    1) Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone

    2) Vomer
  8. Mucosa.

    What do "membranes" line? (2)
    • Membranes (epithelial + C.T)
    • 1) Cavities
    • 2) Surfaces

    • – Open to external environment
    • – Lines Respiratory, digestive, urinary,reproductive systems
    • – Absorptive, protective, secretory
    • – Epithelium, C.T.= lamina propria, + mucoussecreting cells
  9. What are the 4 body membranes?
    1) Mucous

    2) Serous

    3) Cutanous

    4) Synovial
  10. Respiratory Epithelia consist of? (2)
    1) Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

    2) Goblet cells
  11. Olfactory Epithelium (respiratory epithelium + olfactory receptor cells)
  12. Paranasal Sinus

    Lined by?

    Consist of what 4 sinuses?
    Lined by NASAL MUCOSA.

    1) Frontal Sinus (above eyes; as in frontal lobe)

    2) Ethmoid Sinus (Between eyes)

    3) Sphenoid Sinus (Between eyes)

    4) Maxillary Sinus (Left/Right side of nose)
  13. The Pharynx

    Location?

    Consists of what 3 parts?
    Located posterior to nasal cavity, mouth and larynx.

    • Consisted of:
    • 1) Naso - pharynx
    • 2) Oro - pharynx
    • 3) Laryngo - pharynx
  14. (1) Naso - Pharynx (air passage)

    Lined by?

    Describe the passage of air through 4 structures.

    (p. 749)
    Lined by Respiratory Mucosa.

    • 1) choanae (“funnels”) also called INTERNAL NARES.
    • 2) tubal tonsil (around opening of auditory tube to middle ear).
    • 3) Pharyngeal tonsil (“adenoid”)
    • 4) uvula (“little grape”)
  15. (2) Oro - Pharynx (food passage)

    Lined by?

    What and how many structures do the Oro - Pharynx consist of? (5)
    Lined by stratified squamous epithelium.

    • 1) Fauces "pillars"
    • 2) palatine tonsil
    • 3) lingual tonsil
    • 4) epiglottis
    • 5) hyoid bone
  16. (3) Laryngo - Pharnyx (air and food)

    Lined by?

    What and how many structures does the Laryngo - Pharynx consist of? (3)
    Lined by stratified squamous epithelium.

    • 1) epiglottis
    • 2) hyoid bone
    • 3) cricoid cartilage
  17. (3a) The Larynx

    Superior part of larynx is what kind of lining?

    What is contained in this area? (4)

    What lines the Vocal Cords?

    What is below the vocal cords?
    Superior part of larynx is STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

    Vocal cords (vocalization) = stratified squamous

    Below vocal cords = respiratory epithelium

    • 1) Epiglottis
    • 2) glottis
    • 3) Vestibular folds (for protection)
    • 4) Vocal folds (thyroid to arytenoid)
  18. EPITHELIA.

    Stratified Squamous Epithelia line what 5 parts?

    Respiratory Epithelia line what 2 parts?
    • SSE
    • 1) Nasal Cavity
    • 2) Oro-pharynx
    • 3) Laryngo - pharynx
    • 4) Superior part of Larynx
    • 5) Vocal Cords

    • Respiratory Epi.
    • 1) Naso - Pharynx
    • 2) Below Vocal Cords (Trachea)
  19. Which of the 3 pharynx contains the Fauces Pillars?
    The Oro-pharynx (middle section of Pharynx)
  20. The Larynx.

    What do the vocal cords consist of?
    Vocal cords = vocal ligament + fold.
  21. Cartilage Review.

    Epiglottis contains what type of cartilage?

    All laryngeal contains what type of cartilage?

    Trachea contains what type of cartilage?

    McKinley p. 106, 146
    Epiglottis: elastic cartilage

    All laryngeal = hyaline

    Trachea = hyaline
  22. The Trachea. (hyaline cartilage)

    Lined by?

    Consists of?
    Lined by Respiratory Mucosa.

    Consists of: C-shaped carilagenous rings
  23. Trachea & Bronchi

    If a child swallows a penny, where is it most likely to end up?

    What is the importance of the "Carina"?

    Where do they bifurcate?
    Ends of to the right of the bronchi.

    Carina: site of "cough reflex"

    Bifurcates at level of Sternal angle (“transversethoracic plane”)
  24. Anatomy of the lung

    Locate: trachea, Lingula, oblique fissures, cardiac impression, cardiac notch
  25. Pulmonary Arteries

    Pulmonary Veins

    Which is contained in what structures?
    P. Arteries: superior structures

    P. Veins: most inferior structures

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