BIO Exam II
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Give the (3) major biomolecules found in the diet:
Function of Carbohydrates
- primary energy source
- provide structural building materials
Function of Lipids
- Secondary source of energy
- Insulate the body
Function of Protiens
- Responsible for molecular transport
- Muscle movement
What is the importance of Enzymes?
They act as a catalyst, they allow for high speed/ quicker chemical reactions
Supply (3) functional groups found on organic molecules (this is where chemical reactions take place)
- Carboxyl Group
- Hydroxyl Group
- Nh2 Group
Where is the Peptide bond found?
Bonds formed between Amino Acids
What two functional groups are required for the peptide bond?
All organic molecules contain what?
All Organic Acids have what functional group?
What does this the Carboxyl group donate in water solution?
H+ (proton donors)
What (2) molecules comprises a lipid?
Glycerol & Fatty Acid
What reaction type binds LIPIDS together?
Hydrolysis/ Dehydration (removal of water)
It is 3 fatty acids & a Glycerol
What reaction type breaks down liver Glycogen?
Hydrolysis (water breaks the bonds)
Water interacts with a polymer causing bonds that link monomers to each other to be broken - through the removal of water
Define a simple sugar? and give an example
A sugar that cannot be broken down any further,
Example: Glucose, Ribose, Dextrose
Give (2) organelles involved in the Endosymbiotic Theory
Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
What is an organelle?
a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are to cells what an organ is to the body
Supply (3) general cellular compartments:
- ICF (intracellular fluid)
- ECF (extracellular fluid)
Give the requirements for Osmosis (4)
- - Need at least 2 fluid compartments (blood/ lymph/ ICF/ ECF)
- Solvent (most common in molecules water)
-The solvent ,must be free to cross a semipermeable membrane
-Semipermeable membrane (Plasma)
-Solute can’t pass through the membrane, it must remain in the fluid compartment
The movement of solvent (water) to equalize the solute (solid) concentration on either side of the membrane.
What is a solvent?
Liquid (most commpnly water)
What is the Solute?
The solid (ie, salt)
Give (4) means of Cell Membrane Transport:
- Simply Diffusion
- Facilitied Diffusion
- Active Membrane Transport
- Endocytosis (how the cell takes in nutrients & water)
- Exocytosis (how cells get rid of waste)
What is Endocytosis?
- This is how cells take in nutrients, water, etc.
- It is the process in which a substance gains entry into a cell without passing through the cell membrane. (Cellular ingestion by which the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the cell)
Supply (3) general tissue fluid compartments:
What would you find inside a cell nucleus?
Give (3) requirements to run Glycolysis:
Give (2) produts of process of Glycolysis:
Supply (3) differences between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cells
- Eukaryotic cells:-Have a true nucleus
- -larger & more complex
- -has a Cytoskelton (skelton in internal)
- -Cellular respiration reactions take place within the mitochondria
- Prokaryotic Cells
- -no true nucleaus/ has a Nucleoid
- -skelton is external
- -cellular respiration take place within the cytoplasm
Which type was around first, Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic cells?
Give an example?
- Prokaryotic Cells are older
- Example - bacteria
Define entropy and what corrects it:
- Entropy is a state of disorganization
- What corrects it? Energy
What is a Nucleoid?
This is the nuclear area in a Prokaryotic cell
Give the general nucleotide composition:
- Phosphate Base
- Nitrogen Base
Supply two energy making organelle cells
Mitochondria - energy production from the oxidation of glucose substances and the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Chloroplast – photosynthesis, traps energy from sunlight
Where does AEROBIC respiration take place?
in the MITOCHONDRIA
Where does ANAEROBIC Respiration take place?
in the Cytoplasm
What does aerobic respiration require?
Which type of respication makes more ATP - Anaerobic or Aerobic?
What do Ribosomes make & why is this imporatnt?
Proteins (translation of RNA into proteins)
Define Osmotic Pressure:
This is the suction pressure, which depends on the concentration of the solute (more solute, higher pressure)
Why are reduced coenzymes important to the metabolic pathways?
This is a source of energy to make ATP
Supply (3) cell surface modification and a function for each
Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell
Microvilli - increase the overall surface area exposed on the cell which leads to better absorbsion of substances
Where is Lactic Acid From?
from the Reduction of Pyruvate
When is Lactic Acid excessively produced?
When not enough oxygen is in the tissue. When working the muscles really hard (when the rate of demand for energy is high, lactate is produced faster than the ability of the tissues to remove it, so lactate concentration begins to rise)
What is ATP?
- It is the unit of currency in the cells
- It is one of the end products of cellular respiration and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes.
Cyanobacteria are the first_______ that made the gas_____
- Bacteria/ prokaryotes
Do Bacteria have an outside wall?
Give an example
- Yes, some
- example would be a shell (for protection)
What are the Archase?
- Type of bacteria
- Group of single celled microorganisms
Give two subtypes of anaerobic respiration
-Which one is more popular commercial & why?
- Glycolysis & Fermentation
- Fermentation, it makes alcohols and carbon dioxide which is used for baking
Chemically ATP is a modified what?
Nucleotide (because it has is made up of a 5 carbon sugar (ribose), a phosphate group (3 phosphate molecules bonded together), and a nitrogen base. All of these characteristics are all nucleotide traits.
Ribosome could be found in three ways, what are they?
How is a metabolic pathway like a chain reaction?
The product of one reaction could be the enzyme or substrate of the next reaction
Why are enzyme active sites so Critical?
This is where the reaction takes place
What is enzyme denaturation?
It is a change in the active site
What can cause enzyme denaturation in an organism?
Where do molocules get the energy from?
Nutrients, by breaking high energy electrons
Besides respirations, where do molecules get their energy from, what process?
The energy comes from the sun and the process is photosynthesis which converts this to energy
Suppose nutrient chemical bonds are broken, give the typical reaction _________ What whole process breaks these ________ What sub class of reactions are involved ______ & ______
- Aerobic (with oxygen) & Anaerobic (w/o oxygen)
Give (4) comments about any metabolic pathway - Glycolysis
- Two ATP molecules are used
- Four ATP are produced
- Glucose enters cells by facilitated diffusion
- converts glucose into pyruvate
What do you know about Glycolysis?
- the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate
- occurs in the Cytoplasm
- makes some ATP
-Why are reduced coenzymes important to metabolic pathways?
-Specifically, where is their energy from?
-Where did they get their energy from?
- It’s a source of energy to make ATP
- Inside reduced coenzymes
- Nutrients, by breaking high energy electrons
Besides respiration, where do these molecules get their energy from? What Process?
The SUN, energy is convereted through the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Supply (3) structural components of the cell membrane
- Naturally occurring cholesterol
- Bi phosphate Lipid
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