chem101 test 3- study guide

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dmk5154
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143929
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chem101 test 3- study guide
Updated:
2012-03-26 14:48:19
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chem101 psu
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test 3 chptr 5, 6, 7, 8
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  1. The amount of substance "triangle" (#particles, avagadros number, & moles)
    • # particles (top)
    • Avagadros number * Moles (bottom)
  2. The weight and molar mass "triangle" (grams, moles, & molar mass)
    • Grams (top)
    • Moles * grams/mole (bottom)
  3. ___________ ions are unreactive in an ionic equation
    spectator
  4. elements become ionized in __________. (ie. K2SO4 ----> K+ + SO4 2- )
    water
  5. The loss of electrons is _______
    oxidation (LEO)
  6. The gain of electrons is _________
    Reduction (GER)
  7. the __________ formula is the compound expressing the smallest whole number ratio of atoms present
    empirical
  8. The Atomic mass unit (amu) is the mass (grams) of one _______ of the substance
    mole (periodic weights)
  9. the ______ is the compound formed by a reaction that will no longer be ionized (i.e. it is a solid).
    precipitate
  10. Type I compounds are named by adding -___ to the end of the ANION name
    -ide (i.e. hydrogen iodide)
  11. Type II cations can assume more than one charge. They must be named with ______
    Roman numerals --ie. Mercury (II)
  12. Type III binary compound elements have a prefix indicating _____ based on the subscript #
    • number of that element based on subscript #( , ie. mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-
    • Boron triflouride (NO mono on 1st element!))
  13. Type III: one
    mono-
  14. Type III: two
    di-
  15. Type III: three
    tri-
  16. Type III: four
    tetra-
  17. Type III: five
    penta-
  18. Type III: six
    hexa-
  19. Type III: seven
    hepta-
  20. Type III: eight
    octa-
  21. compounds composed of two elements are called ___________. They contain either nonmetals and metals or nonmetals and nonmetals
    binary compounds
  22. a _______ compound contains a positive cation and a negative anion.
    binary ionic
  23. charged entities composed of several atoms bound together are called ________ ions
    polyatomic
  24. several series of polyatomic ions exist which contain an element and a varying number of oxygen atoms are called _______
    oxyanions
  25. when dissolved in water, certain molecules produce H+ ions (protons). Also have a sour taste. These are called ______
    acids
  26. The four driving forces of chemical reactions are the formation of ____ ___ & ____, as well as the transfer of ______
    solid, water, gas; electrons
  27. a chemical reaction is expressly represented by a chemical equation which is composed of ______ & ______
    reactants -------> products
  28. In a chemical reaction, atoms are neither ____ or _________
    created or destroyed
  29. the formation of a solid in a chemical reaction is called _________
    precipitation
  30. when each unit of a substance that dissolves in water produces separated ions the substace is called a(n)
    electrolyte
  31. NaCl, NaSO4, HCl, & Pb(NO3)2 are examples of __________
    Strong electrolytes
  32. Most nitrate NO3- salts are _______
    soluble
  33. Most salts of Na+, K+, and NH4+ are ________
    soluble
  34. Most chloride salts are ______. EXCEPTIONS are AgCl PbCl2, Hg2Cl2
    soluble
  35. INSOLUBLE Chloride salts are: (3) ______ _____ & ________
    Silver , lead, & mercury
  36. Most sulfate salts are ______. EXCEPTIONS are Ba, Pb, & Ca
    soluble
  37. INSOLUBLE sulfate SO4 salts are : (3) _____ _____ & _____
    Barium, lead, & Calcium
  38. Most Hydroxide -OH compounds are _______. EXCEPTIONS are Na, K
    insoluble (slightly soluble)
  39. SOLUBLE hydroxides are :(2) ______ & ______
    sodium & Potassium
  40. Most sulfides, carbonates, and phosphates are ________
    insoluble
  41. acetic acid is a _______
    a weak electrolyte
  42. HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 are ...........
    strong acids
  43. a ______ is a substance that produces hydroxide ions in water
    base
  44. NaOH, KOH are .....
    strong bases
  45. H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) ---->
    H2O (l)
  46. A reaction that involves the transfer of electrons is called a(n) ___________________ reaction
    oxidation-reduction
  47. a formation of a solid when two solutions are mixed is called __________, equivalent to double-displacement reactions
    precipitation reaction
  48. acid-base reactions result in ________
    water
  49. chemical reactions that involve oxygen produce heat/energy so rapidly that a flame results. this is called a ________ reaction
    combustion
  50. when a compound is formed from simpler materials it is called a synthesis/________ reaction
    combinatiob
  51. a compound can be broken down into component elements, usually accomplished by heating or electrical current. this is called a _______ reaction
    decomposition
  52. a small unit used to describe the mass of an atom is called the ___
    amu (atomic mass unit)
  53. The ______ atomic mass is the measurement found on the periodic table of elements
    average
  54. a _____ is the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in 12.01 grams of carbon
  55. the number of atoms in ONE MOLE is ALWAYS __________. The weight/mass of the substance to contain that mole varies
    6.022x1023 (Avagadro's #)

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