Government Exam 2

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  1. citizens' attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions and events
    public opinion
  2. basic priniciples that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events
  3. a cohesive set of belieds that forms a general philophy about the role of government
    Political ideology
  4. a specific prefence on a particular issues
  5. the induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying belifes and values on which he political system is base
    political socialization
  6. social institutions, including families and schools that help to shape individauls' basic political beliefs and vaules
    agencies of socializion
  7. a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the difference in viewes between women and men
    gender gap
  8. today his term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities and women; and greater concern for consumers and the enviroment.
  9. todayd this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulae and economic arrangements
  10. beleive that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizen's freedom
  11. the ability to influence govenment and politics
    political efficacy
  12. the public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete
    marketplace of ideas
  13. scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
    public - opinion polls
  14. a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characeristics of an entire population
  15. a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent
    probabitity sampling
  16. a polling method in which respondents are selected at randomfrom a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to aviod bias in the construttion of the sample
    random digit dialing
  17. polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample
    sampling error
  18. polling error that arises when the sample is not representive of the pop. being studied, which creates errors in overrepresenting or underrepresenting some opinions
    selection bias
  19. failure to indenify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions
    measuremnt error
  20. a polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion
    push polling
  21. attitudes and views that are sepecially important to the indivdual holding them
    salient interests
  22. the impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when actaully it is not
    illusion of saliency
  23. a shift in electoral support to the candiate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner
    bandwagon effect
  24. political activities whose purpose is to influence government
    politcal participation
  25. a strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature
  26. an attempt, usually through the use of paid consultants, to est. a favorable relationship with the public and influence its political opinions
    public relations
  27. a lawsuit or legal proceeding; as a form of political participation, an attempt to seek relief in a court of law
  28. participation that involves assembling crorwds to confront a government or other official organization
  29. the right to vote
  30. franchise
  31. a state-imposed tax on voters a prerequisite for registration
    poll tax
  32. rendered unconsitution in national elections by the 24th amendment in 1966
    poll tax
  33. the percentage of eligible individuals who actaully vote
  34. status in society based on level of education, income, and occupational prestige
    socioeconomic status
  35. a sense of concern among members of the political community about public, social, and political life, expressed through participation in social and political organization
    civic engagement
  36. organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices
    political parties
  37. a political system in which only two parties have a realistic opportunity to compete effectively for control
    two-party system
  38. the point in history when a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force
    electoral realignment
  39. occurs every 30 years in the US
    Electoral relignment
  40. the condition in Am gov wherein the presidency is controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress
    divided government
  41. parties that organize to compete against the two major american political parties
    3rd parties
  42. an electorate that is allowed to select only one representative from each district; the normal method of representation in the US
    single-member district
  43. an electorate that selects all candidates at large from the whole district; each votes is given the number of votes equivalent to the number of seats to be filled
    multiple-member district
  44. a type of electoral system in which to win a seat in the parliment or other representative body, a candidate need only recieve the most votes in thhe election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast
    plurality system
  45. a multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportotion to its percentage of the total vote
    proportional representation
  46. the formal structure of a political party, including its leadership, election commitees, active memebers, and paid staff
    party organization
  47. a normally closed meeting of a politatical or legislative group to selec canidates, plan stragety, or make decisions regaurding legistlative matters
  48. a national party political institution that nominates the party's presidential and vic presidentail candiates est. party rules and writes ratifies the party's platform
    national convention
  49. a party document, written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, princinples and positions on issues
  50. nonprofit independent groups that receive and disburse funds to influence the nomination, election, or defeat of candiates
    527 commitees
  51. strong party organizations in late-19th and early 20th century American cities; led by "bosses" who controlleed party nominations and patronage
  52. the resources avaiable to higher officals, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants licenses or special favors to supporters
  53. money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for political activites that is not regulated by federal campaign spening laws
    soft money
  54. an individual voter's psycholical ties to one party or another
    party identification
  55. partisans who contribute time, energym and effort to support their party and its candidates
    party activist
  56. the process by which political parties select their candidates for election to public office
  57. an individual who identifies a problem as a political issue and brings a policy proposal into the political agenda
    party entrepreneur
  58. the party that hold the majority of legislative seats in either the house or the senate
    majority party
  59. the party that holds a minority of legislative seats in either the House or the Senate
    minority party
  60. congressional elections that do not coincide with a presidentail election also called off year elections
    midterm elections
  61. election held to select a party's candidate for the general election
    primary elections
  62. a primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to primary day
    closed primary
  63. a primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candiates for the general election
    open primary
  64. the practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislature to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection
  65. procedure to allow voters an opportunity to remove state officals from office before their terms expire
  66. a type of electoral system in which to win a seat in the parliment or other representive body a candiate must receive a majority of all the votes cast in the relevant district
    majority system
  67. a multiple-memeber district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote
    proportional representation
  68. the process of redrawing election districts and redistributing legislative representives.
    happens every ten years
  69. apportionment of votes in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantages to one racial or ethnic group or political party
  70. attempts to draw district boundaries so as to create districts made up primarily of disadvantaged or underrepresented minorities
    benign gerrymandering
  71. a gerrymandered voting district that improves the chances of minority candidates by making selected minority groups the majority within the district
    majority-minority district
  72. the result of voters casting their ballot for president or governor and "automatically" voting for the remainder of the party's ticket
    coattail effect
  73. an effort by political candiates and their supporters to win the backing of donors political activist and voters in their quest for political office
  74. a candidate running for reelection to a position that he or she already holds
  75. a system in which all of a states presidentail nominating are awarded to the candidate who wins the most votes while runners up recieve no delegates
    winner-take-all system
  76. political activist selected to vote at a party's national convention
  77. a convention delegate position, in democratic conventions, reserved for party officals
  78. a 15 - 30 , or 60 second television campaign commerical that permits a candidates' message to be delivered to a target audience
    spot advertisment
  79. a media format in which canidates meet with ordinary citizens. allows candidates to deliver messages without the presence of journalists or commentators
    town meeting
  80. voting based on the imagined future performance of a candiate
    proseptive voting
  81. voting based on the past performnace of a candidate
    retrospective voting
  82. a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
  83. nonprofit groups that also engage in issue advocacy
    501c(4) committees
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Government Exam 2
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