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What do topographic maps show?
elevation, relief, and slope
How would you recognize a river on a topographic map?
Topographic maps have contour lines, indicating the height of that area, when a contour line forms a v shape on a topographic map, that's a valley. When there is a line (usually blue) that goes through it, that's a river.
How would you recognize a depression on a topographic map?
A depression is marked by closed loops of contour lines with little dashes called ticks that point to a lower elevation.
How would you recognize a hilltop on a topographic map?
On a topographic map, there are contour loops that sometimes make closed loops, representing a hill. In the middle of the loops, there is a symbol, usually an X with the highest elevation on it.
(The elevation next to the symbol has t o be higher than the loop immediately around it, but lower than the elevation that the next contour line would be.
What are the Acronyms for Chemical and Mechanical weathering kinds? What do u say to remember it? What are they really?
- Refrain From Pushing Angry Alligators
- Release of pressure, Freezing and thawing, Plants, Abrasion, Animal actions
- What Can Penguins Argue Over?
- Water, C02, Plant acid, Acid Rain, Oxidation
What are the two factors of weathering? Why are these factors?
The two factors of weathering are climate and the kind of rock. Climate is a factor because the warmer and wetter it is, the easier the rock is weathered because there is a lot of C02 in hot climates which weathers the rock, and the water also wears away the rock as opposed to a cold, dry climate. The reason the kind of rock is a factor of weathering because the more permeable a rock is, the more surface area there is to be weathered which makes the rock weather faster than less permeable rocks.
How do erosion and deposition continually work togther to build up and wear down earth's surface?
Erosion is consistantly working through water, erosion, gravity, and ice. Erosion is when these sediments get picked up by one or more of these forces and moved. When these sediments are put in an area, that is deposition, when this orccurs for a while, deposition can create landforms like hills and mountains. Together, these wear down and build up earth's surface.
What is the major agent of erosion?
What are some results of deposition along a stream?
One result of deposition along a stream is an oxbow lake. When there is a meander and deposition cuts the meander off from the stream/river, it forms an oxbow lake. The other result is an alluvial fan. An alluvial fan is a fan-shaped area of deposition found at the mouth of a stream, these are made when water carrying sediments slows down at a point and deposits the sediment. Eventually, the stream meanders around the deposition and continues to deposit and wear away sediment.
How does a fossil forms?
A fossil forms when an animal leaves a print, or dies, leaving it's bones. These get covered by sediment and get preserved by it. After millions of years, the fossil surfaces at the top. But for a print, the animal leaves a print and the print can get covered by sediment and surface, preserving the print. If sediments get pressed into the print and harden then resurface, it's called a cast. When sediments completely replace the atomical make up of something, it's called a petrified fossil. :D
What does the fossil record show us?
The fossil record shows what animals were alive in an area and when they were alive. The fossil record also shows the climate/status of the land (i.e. swamp, lava, ocean.)
What is the Law of Superposition?
The Law of Superpostion is a law that states that rock layers below other layers have to be older than the ones ontop of them, ergo, the layers ontop have to be younger.
What are index fossils and why are they useful?
Index fossils are the fossils of an organism that was around for a short period of time in a vast area. These are useful because they were around for a short period of time, so it's easy to know about how old the fossil is, so when it is found in a layer of rock, the rock can be dated.
Which is older, an intrusion or the rock it goes through? Why?
The rock that the intrusion goes through is older than the intrusion because the layer had to be there for the intrusion to go through it.
What is the composition of the other materials in soil besides loose weathered rock?
minerals, decayed organic material, water, and air.
What determines the rate of soil formation?
Kind of rock and climate
What are the soil horizons?
Topsoil, horizon A, B, C, and bedrock
- A is: Fertile, a lot of organisms, and not very rocky.
- B is: pretty fertile, some organisms, and pretty rocky.
- C is: Not too fertile, a couple organisms, and extremely rocky
How do living organisms help the soil?
- -Plant roots break apart rocks and help hold soil in place
- -Bacteria breaks down organisms and their wastes
- -Leaves, roots, and stems are a key part of humus
- -Animals like worms break up compacted soil, making it easier for plant roots to spreas and water to enter the soil
- -fungi lets out rootlike threads and releases chemicals that digest plant remains.
- -decomposers decompose
What do scientists think was the source of oxegyn in earth's atmosphere?
After the first atmosphere was lost, a second atmosphere formed around earth, and volcanic erruptions spewed out co2, water vapor, and other gasses. Also, comets consisting of water and frozen gasses such as co2 hit the earth. The CO2 from the volcanoes and comets then got taken in by plants and turned into oxegyn which the plant produced [this is called photosynthesis.]
What was Pangea?
Pangea was a landform made up of all the continents. This reoccurs ever so often, so Pangea was the most recent one.
- Fun Fact:
- Before Pangea were Gondwala and Rodinia
What is the theory for the mass extiction of dinosaurs?
The theory for the mass extinction of dinosaurs is that a giant item or asteroid hit the earth, killing all the animals in it's path. When the asteroid hit, it created such a giant plume that the sunlight was decreased for years making plants die, which inturn made herbivores die, ergo, making carnivored die.
How did the mass extinction of dinosaurs affect mammals?
The mass extinction of dinosaurs affected mammals by letting them thrive and evolve into what they are now.
What is the geologic time scale?
The grologic time scale is a record of organism evolution and geologic events in earth's history, found through rocks.
What are the three eras of geologic history, what are these divided into?
Cenozoic is divided into quaternary and tertiary
Mesozoic is divided into cretaceous, jurassic, and triassic
Paleozoic is divided into Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician, and Cambrian
How do scientists determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks?
Scientists determine the relative age of rocks by using the Law of Superposition that states that rock layers are older then the layers ontop of them are, ergo the ones ontop are younger. If there is a fault, then the scientists try to match layers then use the Law of Superposition. If there is an extrusion, then it is younger than the layers beneath it but older than the layers ontop of it because it's basically like a new layer being added down you you normally use relative dating. Intrusions are younger than the rocks they go through because the rocks they go through have to be there in order for the intrusion to exist. They tell the absolute age by doing radioactive dating, or by using index fossils.