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making a conclusion on the basis of only one or more isolated events.
Jumping to conclusion
making a conclusion without evidence,r or when evidence contradicts the conclusion. mind reading and fortune telling.
Disqualifying the Postive
Rejecting positive experiencing by insisting they don't count for some reason.
Catastroping or Minimalizing
Exaggerating or shrinking the importance of an event.
Seeing yourself as the cause of a negaive external event with no basis for making that conclusion. "it's always my fault"
Seeing things as eitehr or. I must be perfect or I fail.
Activating Event. An event: Internal or exteral.
Beliefs, Self Talk what se say to ourselves to get ourselves upset. Predictions, Labels, Standards.
Consequences or our responses to what we say to ourselves. Physical, emotional, and behavioral.
How would you challange a standard?
Change to a preference
How would you challange a label?
Describe the behavior or person.
How would you challange a prediction?
Add probablilty "might, could, may"
What I say must or ought to happen
What I am calling the other person, myself, or the situation.
My assumtion of what is going to happen.
Types of consequences and effects
Behavioral, emotional, physical - crying, depressed, shaking (body)
Types of beliefs and Disruptutaion
Standards, Labels, Predictions
What is a Rupture?
deterioration in the quality of the relationship between patient and therapist
How to repair a rupture?
Own up to it and ask what you can do to help repair it, use feelings and emapthy when talking with the client about the rupture.
4 types of probes
Statements, requests, questions, words/phrases - in effect to questions or requests
When to summarize
beginning of session, during a session that is going no where, when a client gets stuck, when a client needs a new perspective
Give examples of non-verbal and verbal prompts
- nonverbal - noding, leaning
- Verbal - sounds of agreement, silence
Example of a distressing/alarming Label?
How could I be so stupid?
Example of an alarming/distressing Standard?
I must always be perfect.
Example of an alarming/distressing Prediction.
If I do this...this will happen.I will never like it there it's not fun.
Protects us from danger, however can cause stress anxiety when it takes all of our time and energy.
Our emergency-response system can be re-trained to respond differently to different stimuli. In anxiety disorders this response can work against the person to cause more stress.
How anxiety affects the body
- Automatic Immediate response - Fight for our life or Flee
- Heart Beats faster - blood to the muscles and oxygen to muscles
- Lungs - Need more oxygen, breathe faster and more shallow.
- Muscles - tighter more tense
- Digestion - decreases, less energy devoted to it.
- Sweating increases - too cool off while you are running or fighting
- Adrenal Gland - increases adrenaline
- Immune System - becomes suppressed
if you can increase your anxiety by exposing yourself to an anxious stimuli, the discomfort begins to lessen, and your system begins the slow but certain process of retraining.
Key Ingredients for Relaxation
- Passive attitude
- Decreased Muscle Tone
- Mental Device
- Quiet Enviorment
allows the chest to remain relaxed, because downward movement of the diaphragm pulls air into the lungs.
Why does diaphragmatic braething help?
- To increase your awareness of overbreathing and chest breathing, which tend to increase sensations of anxiety such as numbness, tingling, chest pressure, hot flashes, blurred vision, and sweating.
- To lower baseline levels of arousal/tension.
- To give you a method of taking calm, relaxing breaths in order to break the cycle of increasing arousal during anxious episodes.
Cue-controlled relaxation involves identifying a cue, or reminder, for ourselves, and practicing a simple “letting go” relaxation technique whenever and wherever we see or hear the cue.
brief paragraph (5-8 sentences) about a worrisome scene.
Worry exposure is one way of gaining control of cognitive (thinking) anxiety: it involves creating a mental picture of various worries, and maintaining that picture until anxiety begins to lessen
During the day they write every worry they have in their worry log. Give a time later at night, 7-8 tonight to worry about it.
Increases the likelihood for suicide, followed by OCD.Fight or flight response is extremely heightened. Will have a panic attack, lasts 10 mins, but will spend the next month worrying about having another panic attack, and most likely will not go out in public for fear of having another panic attack.
Not a failure, it's a slip and use as a cue to get back on the program.Educate them what to do when it happens. Give them the tools to deal with a relapse.
your brain is telling your body that there is a threat to your life and the pupils will dilate giving the brain more information.
Reasons for Reluctance
- Fear of intesity
- lack of trust
- fear of disorganization
- cost of change comfort vs work
- Loss of hope
Resistance in clients
- see no reason to go
- resent third party referrers
- fearful of the unknown
- different goals
- counseling = weakness
- power issues
- different from therapist
If a client comes to you and talks about worry
Look for anxiety
If a client describes instability
Look for borderline personality disorder
Client describes being depressed
Mood disorders or depressive disorders
a better way to confrontation
Reasons for challanging a client
Blind spots, client may be unaware, self-deception, choosing to stay in the dark, knowing but not caring.
Challanging can change
- Mind sets
- internal behavior or way other ways of thinking
- external behavior or ways of acting
- Discrepancies between thinking/saying and acting
- others behavior and attutudes and their impact.