renal disease

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  1. what is the unit of kidney structure and function?
  2. main functions of the kidneys?
    • -maintain fluid balance
    • -renin mechanism major control over blood pressure
    • -erythropitin is critical determinant of RBC activity in bone marrow
    • -kidney necessary to produce active form of vitamin D
  3. what is creatinine?
    • waste product of muscle metabolism
    • produced by muscles
    • determine lean body mass
  4. How is creatinine excreted?
    excreted into urine by kidneys
  5. How does the body catabolize the nitrogen group of amino acids?
    breakdown of nitrogen into ammonia by the liver -> urea cycle -> urea to blood -> excreted by kidneys
  6. what is the active form of vitamin D and where is it activated?
    • active form: 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3
    • -calcitriol
  7. seperation of molecules in solution by diffusion through selectively permeable membrane on the basis of molecule size and concentraion gradient?
  8. the 24-hour urinary excretion of _________ is proportionate to the skeletal muscle mass of the individual.
  9. foods rich in phosphrous?
    • milk
    • egg
    • meat
  10. foods rich in potassium?
    • milk
    • banana
    • orange
  11. foods renal patients can have?
    • popcorn
    • applesauce
    • butter
  12. what is the accumulation of excess body fluids in cells, tissues causing swelling
  13. ________ is the most abundant intracellular cation
  14. why is high blood potassium considered dangerous?
    causes stress on the heart = heart attack
  15. fluid needs of healthy adults ?
    1 mL/per kcal of energy in the diet per day
  16. _______ is the branch of medicine studying kidney, anatomy, physiology, and pathology
  17. _______ are spcialists of the kidneys, their diseases and medical management
  18. _______ is the general term referring to an abnormal condition of the kidneys due to disease?
  19. _________ is kidney inflammation, which can be acute and chronic
  20. _______ is when renal tissue is hardened due to blood flow, often caused by hypertension?
  21. ____________ is abnormal kidney condition causing clinical signs of edema, marked proteinuria, low blood albumin due to increased glomerular permeability as a result of glomerular injury
    -peeing out protein
    -lose 6-8g of protein a day
    nephrotic syndrome
  22. _________ is a clinical state of severe glomerulonephritis with blood in urine, high blood pressure and kidney failure
    nephritic syndrome
  23. _________ qualifies a state of excess urea in blood
  24. ___________ is abnormally high amount of protein in urine
  25. ___________ is the abnormal presence of albumin in the urine
  26. ________ is the abnormal presence of blood in the urine
  27. __________ means high blood sodium concentration
  28. _________ means high blood potassium concentration
  29. what is CKD
    chronic kidney disease
  30. what is ESRD
    end stage renal disease
  31. what does BUN mean?
    blood urea nitrogen
  32. what does GFR stand for?
    glomeruler filtration rate
  33. what does HBV mean?
    high biological value
  34. kidneys are responsible for maintaining blood pH at?
  35. which clients are susceptible to develop acute renal failure?
    intensive care clients
  36. what are metabolic abnormalities seen in clients with acute renal failure?
    • edema
    • reduced urine production
    • acidosis
  37. type of diet recommended for clients with acute renal failure
    • increase energy
    • water-soluble vitamin supplement
    • restrict pot. sod, fluids
  38. what factors to keep in mind when making nutritional recommendations for clients with acute renal failure?
    • stress
    • nutrition status
    • renal function
  39. 5 stages of developement of chronic kidney disease
    • 1. damage to kidneys
    • 2.damage progresses
    • 3.GFR mod decrease 30-59
    • 4. GFR below 30
    • 5. GFR below 15, end stage
  40. what are metabolic and clinical consequences of chronic kidney failure?
    • less able to perform:
    • cant remove waste
    • cant remove protein
    • increase blood to toxic levels
  41. what are the symptoms caused by increased levels of urea in the blood or uremic symptoms?
    • weakness
    • nausea
    • vomiting
  42. what are the two main goals of MNT for clients with pre-ESRD (stages 1-4)
    • meet nutritional needs
    • provide nutrition education
  43. type of diet for pre-ESRD
    • pro- .6-.8
    • energy- 35-40
    • reduce: pro, pho, sod
  44. protein intake for pre-ESRD
  45. what amount of energy recommended for clients with pre-ESRD
  46. what amount of phosphorus recommended for clients with pre-ESRD
  47. what amount of sodium recommended for clients with pre-ESRD
  48. what amount of potassium recommended for clients with pre-ESRD
  49. what amount of calcium recommended for clients with pre-ESRD
  50. when glomeruler filtration rate falls below 20ml of blood per minutes, blood _______ concentration increases
  51. when blood phosphorus concentration increases it inhibits vitamin ___ activation by kidneys
  52. Inhibitation of vit. D reduces absorbtion of dietary______ leading to low blood calcium
  53. the brain reacts by stimulating the secretion of _______ hormone, which increases blood calcium concentration
  54. number one way to prevent renal osteodystrophy in clients with chronic renal insuffiency is to control blood ______ concentration
  55. this medication can help control blood phosphorus
    phosphate binder
  56. vitamin ___ supplementation is associated with toxicity in patients with chronic renal insufficency
  57. what are the goals of MNT for clients with nephrotic syndrome who are not on dialysis?
    • assist with nutritional needs
    • reduce metabolic complications
    • slow progression
  58. kidneys are important for activation of vitamin ___?
  59. what is the main waste product of amino acids catabolism?
  60. the two main causes of chronic kidney disease are?
    hypertension and diabetes
  61. who will have a higher plasma creatinine concentration young male or old woman?
    young man due to more muscle
  62. what is the creatinine height index?
    measures muscle based on young age, creatinine
  63. do high protein diets cause chronic renal failure?
    no, renal failure disease should not be on high protein (.8-1g)
  64. renal clients suffering from fluid restrictions is suffering from
    thirst what to do?
    • swish water
    • hard candie
    • sice cubes
    • smaller glass
    • drink slow
    • lemon juice
  65. a low protein-phosphorus diet is recommended for clients with
    pre-ESRD for the following reasons?
    prevent waste products, calcium waste, nitrogenous waste
  66. these foods are high in potassium?
    melons, seeds, bananas, baked potatoes
  67. these foods are high in phosphorus?
    liver, baked beans, chocolate, nuts
  68. in a catabolic client, cell breakdown releases ______ which
    increases in blood
  69. high serum ______ concentration makes clients feel itchy and causes muscle spasms?
  70. low serum _____ concentration is the biggest predictor of
    morbidity and morality in clients with renal disease?
  71. which abnormal biochemical test values are typically seen in
    clients with nephrotic syndrome?
    • low albumin
    • increase blood lipids
    • protein in urine
    • edema
  72. in clients using continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis the
    _____ ______ serves as a natural dialyzing membrane
    peritoneal cavity
  73. Dietary recommendations for pre-ESRD?
    • protein: .6-.8g
    • energy:35-40kcal/kg
    • phosphorus:8-12mg
    • sodium: 1-3g
    • potassium:unrestricted
    • fluid:unrestricted
  74. dietary recommendations for nephrotic syndrome?
    • protein:.8-1g
    • energy:35kcal
    • fat: <30%
    • phosphorus:8-12mg
    • sodium: 1-3g
    • potassium:unrestricted
    • fluid:unrestricted
  75. dietary recommendations for ESRD with hemodialysis?
    • protein:1.2-1.4
    • energy:30kcal/kg
    • phosphorus:<1700mg
    • sodium: 3-4g
    • potassium:2-3g
    • fluid:500mL + urine output
  76. ESRD with peritoneal dialysis?
    • protein:1.2-1.5
    • energy:25-35kcal/kg
    • phosphorus:<1700mg
    • sodium: 2-4g
    • potassium:unrestricted
    • fluid: 2000mL
  77. dietary recommendations for acute renal failure?
    • protein: .6-.8g
    • energy: 30-35kcal
    • phosphorus: restrict
    • sodium: restrict
    • potassium: restrict
  78. less than 500ml urine/day
  79. accumulation of nitrogen containing waste products in blood
  80. ablilty to eliminate nitrgenous waste products
    renal function
  81. inablilty to excrete the daily load of wastes
    renal failure
  82. MNT for ESRD
    • drugs
    • diet
    • dialysis
    • transplant
  83. equation for GFR?
    creatinine + urea /2 = GFR
  84. How to slow the process of chronic kidney disease?
    • control blood sugar levels
    • control blood pressure
    • losing excess wt
    • exercise
  85. normal GFR?
  86. what is peritoneal dialysis?
    lining of patients pertinoneal wall is the selective membrane
  87. what is hemodiaylsis?
    membrane is manmade diaylzer
  88. when it comes to monitoring the body of someone with renal disease
    sodium is up =
    sodium down=
    blood pressure up=
    blood pressure down=
    • lots of water on board
    • dehydrated
    • retaining water
    • dehydrated
  89. sodium

    mEq x 23 =
    • mEq
    • mg
  90. potassium

    mEq x39 =
    • mEq
    • mg
Card Set:
renal disease
2012-04-04 04:11:24

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