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What are 3 factos that contribute to congressional incumbents getting reelected?
- Low voter turnouts
- Services to constituents
- Ability to duck responsibility
What group does the term issue generalist describe?
Political parties/ their vies change like the wind
Describe political parties
Seperate and largel independent party organizations who exsist and the national, state, and local level
Whose interest does the Democratic party tend to look out for? The Republican party?
The Democratic party tends to look out for the working class while the Republicans tend to look out for the "owning class"
What is the role of party organizations?
To recruit and select adidates to run in the general election, to decide the party platforn, and to mobilize its suporters in the general election
What is the result of single member districts?
Legislatures dominated by two political parties
Describe Third Parties
Third parties usually form around a specific cause, often force a particula issue on the political agenda, and may play a spoiler rold for major parties
What has contributed to the weakening of the ifluence f political parties?
The rise of interest groups
How have primary election changed the roles of party organizations?
They play a suporting role to candidate-centered elections
What are some ways a poltical party in government might reward members who "toe the party line"?
- Give them prize committee assignments
- Additional reelection support
What are some ways a poltical party in government might punish those independent minded legislaters of their party?
By not supporting the pet projects of those legislaters
What has increased within political partries?
Polarization, with few moderate party members.
Why are American political parties conidered weak compared to other countries?
In othe rdemocracies party organizations retain the ability to select their candidates, parties in government have greater unity, and citizens have greater loyalty to their party
How does one party identification affect him or her?
Helps him or her to evaluate political issues nd candidates
Define national convention
A meeting of party delagates; primary purpose is to nominate presidential and vice presidential candidates and to ratify a campaign platform
When a state moves up their primary date so they can have more of an influence in the elcetion
Current or former government officials who attend the DNC and vote for the part presidential nominee based on their conscience; their votes doesm't have to reflect the results of their state primary
True or False: Elections are candidate centered?
What are the 2 phases of running for president?
- The nomination (caucus and primaries)
- The general election
Why aren't primaries as accurate as they should be?
Since so many few come out in vote in primaries, the one chosen my those who came out and vote wont aways reflects a parties beliefs
What are some of the biggest influences on citizens' voting decisions?
- Party identification
- Condition of the economy
- Evalutatio of the cadidates personal characteristics
What type of system to the Republican have? Democrats?
Winner take all; proportional
When to the rule of the FEC apply?
During the Federal Eletiosn
What laws do 527'S have to abie by?
The tax laws/codes
What Court case helped to create Super PAC's ?
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commissions
Compare a candidate in the begining of his/her campaing to the end
In the beginin on a candidates campaign they are more focause on party loyalist and the base of their campagn. However, once they win the primary they beging to reach out to a broader group of voters.
What were some of the regulations under McCain Feigngold?
- Banned soft money in Federal elections/NATIONAL PARTIES
- Raised the limit on individual contributuions to $2500
- Raised the limit on individual contribution to the parties from 20,000 to 25,000
- Provided matching funds for presidential candidates
- Political parties (DNC/RNC) cannot directly recieve money from individuals
- Opened spending to INDIVIDUAL organizations
527's are groups that can spend as much money as they want on issue based ads as ong a they dont support or oppose a candidate
What was the Federal Election Campaign Finance Act of 1975?
An act thay established a Federal Election Commission to enforce campaign laws and public disclosure of donors;limited individual contributions to $2,000
What was the outcome of Buckley v. Valeo?
Limits on campaign spending is unconstitutional on grounds of free speech
gave more delegates to minority groups and created super delegates
Decribe the outcome of McConnell v. FEC
Challenged the constitutionality of the new McCain-Feigngold campaign finanace laws which upheld everything except the par of the law that states minors could not make contribution to candidates and poitical partie s
What was the regulations that was deemed unconstitutional by the case Citizens United v. FEC?
The banning of political ads and commercial 30 days before primaries and 60 days before general elections
What are the regulations for Political Action Committees ?
- 50 Members
- Give to atleast 5 federal candidates
- Have a donations limit to $5000
Define soft money
Donations made to a party organization rather than a particular candiddate ( banned on the national level but not state level)
Define 527 groups
Independent political organizations not regulated by the FEC and not subjected to the same contribution limits and PAC's - issue based npt candidate riented
Gathering individual checks to donate to a campaign
What are independent expenditures?
Money spent by independent organiations- usually in the form of advertising- candidates must not have linsk