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Therapeutic exercise is the prescription of the bodily movements to do what three things?
- correct and prevent an impairment
- improve musculoskeletal function
- improve state of well being
What can cause a lot of pain from muscles?
weakness and tightness
What are some objectives of ther ex?
- decrease pain
- increase relaxation
- increase circulation
- increase mobility/flexibility
- increase strength
- increase coordination/balance
- increase endurance
- increase function
Mobility is considered what?
Flexibility is considered what?
extensibility of muscles
What is strength?
ability of muscle to produce tension
What is a major goal we want for ther ex?
proximal stability for distal mobility
What is Sherringtons law of autogenic technique?
you contract tight muscles as hard as you can which will fatigue them and help to relax them
What is Sherringtons law of reciprocal innervation/inhibition?
you work on the muscle group thats opposite of the tight muscle..(contract the biceps to relax tight triceps)
What are the 4 basic qualities of muscle work?
What is power?
force X velocity = power
ability to contract and develop strength within a given period of time
What is elasticity?
ability to yield to passivie stretch
muscles ability to lengthen and recoil after stretch is removed
What is the cooperation with other muscles in proper timing with appropriate power and elasticity?
A muscle has to be able to elongate to achieve what?
What parts make up the motor unit?
- motor neuron
- al the muscle fibers innervated by the nerve fibers
What 4 things do you need to do to increase muscle strength?
- -contractility of the muscle (each muscle fiber)
- -number of motor units firing
- -frequency of firing
- -size of muscle fibers
What is the overload principle?
if we want muscle performance to improve, you have to challenge the muscle
What type of contraction develops tension as length changes?
joint movement; dynamic
What are the 2 types of isotonic contractions?
What is a concentric contraction?
- shortening contraction
- origin/insertion move closer together
- usually occurs against gravity
- usually occurs with acceleration activity (bringing body part up/forward)
What is eccentric contraction?
- lengthening contraction
- origin/insertion move farther apart
- usually occurs with gravity
- usually occurs during deceleration activity
- produces greater forces (more tension)
What type of contraction occurs when muscles develop tension with no appreciable change in length or joint position?
What type of contraction occurs when the muscle shortens as maximal tension develops?
What two things must be present for isokinetic contractions?
- constant speed
- accomodating resistance (harder pt pushes/pulls the more resistance)
What is an agonist?
prime mover - when it contracts it causes motion
What is an antagonist?
performs opposite motion of agonist
typically relaxes while agonist is working
What is a synergist?
muscle group working together to foster or inhibit motion
smaller muscles that do the same as the agonist
What is a fixator?
proximal stability for distal mobility
What is substitution?
alternative method used to get functional goal
What is volition?
What type of ROM is performed entirely by an external force (pt/pta,machine,theirselves)?
-acute, too weak/paralyzed,contraindicated to motion
What type of ROM can a patient perform completely and independently?
What type of ROM is part of the ROM performed by the pt., and the rest by the clinician(or other outside force)?
active assistive ROM
What type of ROM can a patient perfrom complete ROM independently against resistance?
-dumbell, weight, theraband
What are movements patients cant do automatically?
Movements of a joint are affected by what 2 things?
- structure of joints (surfaces,capsules,ligaments)
- integrity and flexability of soft tissues that pass over joints (muscle,tendons,vessels,nerves,fasciae)
When doing a functional assessment, what are you looking at during the inspection/appearance/palpation portion?
- general ease of mvmt
What are some non-contractile tissues?
- joint capsules
What are some things the results of ther ex are influenced by?
- pain (should go away w/i 24 hours)
- specificity - NO substitutions
- socioeconomic/cultural factors
- psychosocial support